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in such conditions as diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera. It is a popular remedy for “cold in the head,” but it is not to be relied upon as a prophylactic against infection either by an ordinary cold or true influenza.

CAMPHUYSEN, DIRK RAFELSZ (1586-1627), Dutch painter, poet and theologian, was the son of a surgeon at Gorcum. As he manifested great artistic talent, his brother, in whose charge he was left on the death of his parents, placed him under the painter Govaerts. But at that time there was intense interest in theology; and Camphuysen, sharing in the prevailing enthusiasm, deserted the pursuit of art, to become first a private tutor and afterwards minister of Vleuten' near Utrecht (1616). As, however, he had embraced the doctrines of Arminius with fervour, he was deprived of this post and driven into exile (1619). His chief solace was poetry; and he has left a translation of the Psalms, and a number of short pieces, remarkable for their freshness and depth of poetic feeling. He is also the author of several theological works of fair merit, among which is a Compendium Doctrinæ Sociniorum; but his fame chiefly rests on his pictures, which, like his poems, are mostly small, but of great beauty; the colouring, though thin, is pure; the composition and pencilling are exquisite, and the perspective above criticism. The best of his works are his sunset and moonlight scenes and his views of the Rhine and other rivers. The close of his life was spent at Dokkum. His nephew Raphael (b. 1598) is by some considered to have been the author of several of the works ascribed to him; and his son Govaert (1624-1674), a follower or imitator of Paul Potter, is similarly credited.

CAMPI, GIULIO (1500-1572), the founder of a school of Italian painters, was born at Cremona. He was son of a painter, Galeazzo Campi (147 5-1 536), under whom he took his first lessons in art. He was then taught by Giulio-Romano; and he made a special study of Titian, Correggio and Raphael. His Works are remarkable for their correctness, vigour and loftiness of style. They are very numerous, and the church of St Margaret in his native town owes all its paintings to his hand. Among the earliest of his school are his brothers, Vincenzo and Antonio, the latter of whom was also of some mark as a sculptor and as historian of Cremona.

Giulio's pupil, Bernandino Campi (1522-1592), in some respects superior to his master, began life as a goldsmith; After an education under Giulio Campi and Ippolito Corta, he attained such skill that when he added another to the eleven Caesars of Titian, it was impossible to say which was the master's and which the imitator's. He was also much influenced by Correggio and Raphael. His principal work is seen in the frescoes of the cupola at San Sigismondo, at Cremona.

CAMPILLO, JOSÉ DEL (1695-1743), Spanish statesman, was of very obscure origin. From his own account of his youth, written to Antonio de Mier in 1726, we only know that he was born in “a house equally poor and honest,” that he studied Latin by his own wish, that he entered the service of Don Antonio Maldonado, prebendary of Cordoba, who wished apparently to train him as a priest, and that he declined to take orders. He left the service of Maldonado in 1713, being then eighteen years of age. In 1715 he became “page” to D. Francisco de Ocio, superintendent general of customs, who doubtless employed him as a clerk. In 1717 he attracted the favourable notice of Patino, the head of the newly-organized navy, and was by him transferred to the naval department. Under the protection of Patino, who became prime minister in 1726, Campillo was constantly employed on naval administrative work both at home and in America. It was Patino's policy to build up a navy quietly at home and in America, without attracting too much attention abroad, and particularly in England. Campillo proved an industrious and honest subordinate. Part of his experience was to be present at a shipwreck in Central America in which he was credited with showing spirit and practical ability in saving the lives of the crew. In 1726 he was denounced to the Inquisition for the offence of reading forbidden books. The proceedings against him were not carried further, but the incident is an example of the vexatious tyranny exercised by the Holy Office, and the effect it must have had even in its decadence in damping all intellectual activity. It was not until in- 1741, when Spain was entangled in a land war in Italy and a naval war with England, that Campillo was summoned by the king to take the place of “prime minister. He -had to find the means of carrying on a policy out of all proportion to the resources of Spain, with an empty treasury. His short tenure of power was chiefly notable for his vigorous attempt to sweep away the system of farming the taxes, which left the state at the mercy of contractors and financiers. Campillo's predecessors were constantly compelled to apply to capitalists to provide funds to meet the demands of the king for his buildings and his foreign policy. A whole year's revenue was frequently forestalled. Campillo persuaded the king to allow him to establish a system of direct collection, by which waste and pilfering would be avoided. Some progress was made towards putting the national finances on a sound footing, though Campillo could not prevent the king from disposing, without his knowledge, of large sums of money needed for the public service. He died suddenly on the 11th of April, 1743. Campillo was the author of a treatise on a New System of Government for America printed at Madrid 1789. He also left a MS. treatise with the' curious title, What is superfluous and is wanting' in Spain, in order that it may be what it ought to be, and not what it is.

See D. Antonio Rodriquez Villa, Patiño y Campillo (Madrid, 1882)

CAMPINAS, an inland city of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; 65 m. by rail N.W. of the city of Sao Paulo and 114 m. from the port of Santos, with which it is connected by the Paulista & Sao Paulo railway. Pop. (1890) of the city and municipality, 33,921. Campinas is the commercial centre of one of the oldest coffee-producing districts of the state and the outlet for a rich and extensive agricultural region lying farther inland. The Mogyana railway starts from this point and extends north to Uberaba, Minas Geraes, while the Paulista lines extend north-west into new and very fertile regions. Coffee is the staple production, though Indian' corn, mandioca and fruit are produced largely for local consumption. The city is built in a bowl-like depression of the great central plateau, and the drainage from 'the surrounding hillsides has produced a dangerously insanitary condition, from which one or two virulent fever epidemics have resulted.

CAMPING-OUT. The sport of abandoning ordinary house-life, and living intents, touring in vans, boats, &c., has been elaborately developed in modern times, and a considerable literature has been devoted to it, to which the curious may be referred.

See, for Europe, A. A. Macdonell's Camping-out (1892) and Voyages on German Rivers (1890); G. R. Lowndes, Gipsy Tents (1890).

For Australia and Africa, W. B. Lord, Shifts and Expedients of Camp Life (1871); the articles by F. J. Jackson in the Big Game Shooting volume of the “Badminton Library"; the articles on “Camping out” in The Encyclopaedia of Sport; F. C. Selous, A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa (1881), and Travel and Adventure in South Africa (1893); A. W. Chanler, Through Jungle and Desert (1896); A. B. Rathbone, Camping and Tramping in Malaya (1898). For America, G. O. Shields, Camping and Camp Outfits (1890); W. W. Pascoe, Canoe and Camp Cookery (1893); Woodcraft, by “Nessmuk" (1895); W. S. Rainsford, Camping and Hunting in the Shoshone (1896); S. E. White, The Forest (1903), and The Mountains (1904); Suggestions as to Outfit for Tramping and Camping (1904), published by “The Appalachian Mountain Club,” Boston. Valuable information will be found in the sporting pergdicals, and in the catalogues of outfitters and dealers in sporting goods.

CAMPION, EDMUND (1540-1581), English Jesuit, was born in London, received his early education at Christ's Hospital, and, as the best of the London scholars, was chosen in their name to make the complimentary speech when Queen Mary visited the city on the 3rd of August 1553. He went to Oxford and became fellow of St John's College in 1557, taking the oath of supremacy on the occasion 'of his degree in 1 564, in which year he was orator in the schools. He had already shown his talents as a speaker at the funeral of Amy Robsart in 1560; and when Sir Thomas White, the founder of the college, was buried in 1564, the Latin oration fell to the lot of Campion. Two years later he welcomed Queen Elizabeth to the university, and won a regard, which the queen