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CAMPODEA—CAMUCCINI

CAMPODEA, a small whitish wingless insect with long flexible antennae and a pair of elongated caudal appendages. The best-known species (Campodea staphylinus) has a wide distribution and is equally at home in the warm valleys of south Europe, in the subarctic conditions of mountain tops, in caves and in woods and gardens in England. It lives in damp places under stones, fallen trees or in rotten wood and leaves. Although blind, it immediately crawls away on exposure to the light into the nearest crevice or other sheltered spot, feeling the way with its antennae. Its action is characteristically serpentine, recalling that of a centipede. Campodea is one of the bristle-tailed or thysanurous insects of the order Aptera (q.v.).


CAMPOMANES, PEDRO RODRIGUEZ, Conde de (1723–1802), Spanish statesman and writer, was born at Santa Eulalia de Sorribia, in Asturias, on the 1st of July 1723. From 1788 to 1793 he was president of the council of Castile; but on the accession of Charles IV. he was removed from his office, and retired from public life, regretted by the true friends of his country. His first literary work was Antiquidad maritima de la republica de Cartago, with an appendix containing a translation of the Voyage of Hanno the Carthaginian, with curious notes. This appeared in a quarto volume in 1756. His principal works are two admirable essays, Discurso sobre el fomento de la industria popular, 1774, and Discurso sobre la educacion popular de los artesanos y su fomento, 1775. As a supplement to the last, he published four appendices, each considerably larger than the original essay. The first contains reflections on the origin of the decay of arts and manufactures in Spain during the last century. The second points out the steps necessary for improving or re-establishing the old manufactures, and contains a curious collection of royal ordinances and rescripts regarding the encouragement of arts and manufactures, and the introduction of foreign raw materials. The third treats of the gild laws of artisans, contrasted with the results of Spanish legislation and the municipal ordinances of towns. The fourth contains eight essays of Francisco Martinez de Mata on national commerce, with some observations adapted to present circumstances. These were all printed at Madrid in 1774 and 1777, in five volumes. Count Campomanes died on the 3rd of February 1802.

Don A. Rodriguez Villa has placed a biographical notice of Campomanes as an introduction to the first edition of his Cartas politico-economicas, published in 1878.


CAMPOS, ARSENIO MARTINEZ DE (1831–1900), Spanish marshal, senator and knight of the Golden Fleece, was born at Segovia on the 14th of December 1831. He graduated as a lieutenant in 1852, and for some years was attached to the staff college as an assistant professor. He took part in the Morocco campaign of 1859–1860, and distinguished himself in sixteen actions, obtaining the cross of San Fernando, and the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He then returned to the staff college as a professor. Afterwards he joined the expedition to Mexico under Prim. In 1869 he was sent to Cuba, where he was promoted to the rank of general in 1872. On his return to the Peninsula, the Federal Republican government in 1873 confided to General Campos several high commands, in which he again distinguished himself against the Cantonal Republicans and the Carlists. About that time he began to conspire with a view to restore the son of Queen Isabella. Though Campos made no secret of his designs, Marshal Serrano, in 1874, appointed him to the command of a division which took part in the relief of Bilbao on the 2nd of May of that year, and in the operations around Estella in June. On both occasions General Campos tried in vain to induce the other commanders to proclaim Alphonso XII. He then affected to hold aloof, and would have been arrested, had not the minister of war, Ceballos, answered for his good behaviour, and quartered him in Avila under surveillance. He managed to escape, and after hiding in Madrid, joined General Daban at Sagunto on the 29th of December 1874, where he proclaimed Alphonso XII. king of Spain. From that date he never ceased to exercise great influence in the politics of the restoration. He was considered as a sort of supreme counsellor, being consulted by King Alphonso, and later by his widow, the queen-regent, in every important political crisis, and on every international or colonial question, especially when other generals or the army itself became troublesome. He took an important part in the military operations against the Carlists, and in the negotiations with their leaders, which put an end to the civil war in 1876. In the same way he brought about the pacification of Cuba in 1878. On his return from that island he presided over a Conservative cabinet for a few months, but soon made way for Canovas, whom he ever afterwards treated as the leader of the Conservative party. In 1881, with other discontented generals, he assisted Sagasta in obtaining office. After the death of King Alphonso, Campos steadily supported the regency of Queen Christina, and held high commands, though declining to take office. In 1893 he was selected to command the Spanish army at Melilla, and went to the court of Morocco to make an advantageous treaty of peace, which averted a war. When the Cuban rising in 1895 assumed a serious aspect, he was sent out by the Conservative cabinet of Canovas to cope with the rebellion, but he failed in the field, as well as in his efforts to win over the Creoles, chiefly because he was not allowed to give them local self-government, as he wished. Subsequently he remained aloof from politics, and only spoke in the senate to defend his Cuban administration and on army questions. After the war with America, and the loss of the colonies in 1899, when Señor Silvela formed a new Conservative party and cabinet, the old marshal accepted the presidency of the senate, though his health was failing fast. He held this post up to the time of his death. This took place in the summer recess of 1900 at Zarauz, a village on the coast of Guipuzcoa, where he was buried.


CAMPOS, an inland city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the Parahyba river, 30 m. from the sea, and about 143 m. N.E. of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Pop. (1890) of the city, 22,518; of the municipality, 78,036. The river is navigable for small steamers above and below the city, but is closed to coast-wise navigation by dangerous sandbars at its mouth. The shipping port for Campos is Imbetiba (near Macahé), 60 m. south-west, with which it is connected by rail. There is also water communication between the two places by means of coastal lakes united by canals. Campos has indirect railway communication with Rio de Janeiro by way of Macahé, and is the starting point for several small independent lines. The elevation of the city is only 69 ft. above sea level, and it stands near the western margin of a highly fertile alluvial plain devoted to the production of sugar. The climate is hot and humid, and many kinds of tropical fruit are produced in abundance.


CÂMPULUNG (also written Campu Lung and Kimpulung), the capital of the department of Muscel, Rumania, and the seat of a suffragan bishop; situated among the outlying hills of the Carpathian Mountains, at the head of a long well-wooded glen traversed by the river Tirgului, a tributary of the Argesh. Pop. (1900) 13,033. Its pure air and fine scenery render Câmpulung a popular summer resort. In the town are more than twenty churches, besides a monastery and a cathedral, which both claim to have been founded, in the 13th century, by Radul Negru, first prince of Walachia. The Tirgului supplies water-power for several paper-mills; annual fairs are held on the 20th of July and the 24th of October; and there is a considerable traffic with Transylvania, over the Torzburg Pass, 15 m. north, and with the south by a branch railway to Ploesci. Near Câmpulung are the remains of a Roman camp; and, just beyond the gates, vestiges of a Roman colony, variously identified with Romula, Stepenium and Ulpia Traiana, but now called Gradistea or Jidovi.


CAMUCCINI, VINCENZO (1773–1844), Italian historical painter, was born at Rome. He was educated by his brother Pietro, a picture-restorer, and Borubelli, an engraver, and, up to the age of thirty, attempted nothing higher than copies of the great masters, his especial study being Raphael. As an original painter, Camuccini belongs to the school of the French artist David. His works are rather the fruits of great cleverness and patient care than of fresh and original genius; and his style was essentially imitative. He enjoyed immense popularity, both personally, and as an artist, and received many honours and