preferments from the papal and other Italian courts. He was appointed director of the Academy of San Luca and of the Neapolitan Academy at Rome, and conservator of the pictures of the Vatican. He was also made chevalier of nearly all the orders in Italy, and member of the Legion of Honour. His chief works are the classical paintings of the “Assassination of Caesar,” the “Death of Virginia,” the “Devotion of the Roman Women,” “Young Romulus and Remus,” “Horatius Cocles,” the “St Thomas,” which was copied in mosaic for St Peter’s, the “Presentation of Christ in the Temple” and a number of excellent portraits. He became a rich man, and made a fine collection of pictures which in 1856 were sold, a number of them (including Raphael’s “Madonna with the Pink”) being bought by the duke of Northumberland.
CAMULODUNUM, also written Camalodūnum (mod. Colchester, q.v.), a British and Roman town. It was the capital of the British chief Cunobelin and is named on his coins: after his death and the Roman conquest of south Britain, the Romans established (about A.D. 48) a colonia or municipality peopled with discharged legionaries, and intended to serve both as an informal garrison and as a centre of Roman civilization. It was stormed and burnt A.D. 61 in the rising of Boadicea (q.v.), but soon recovered and became one of the chief towns in Roman Britain. Its walls and some other buildings still stand and abundant Roman remains enrich the local museum. The name denotes “the fortress of Camulos,” the Celtic Mars.
CAMUS, ARMAND GASTON (1740–1804), French revolutionist, was a successful advocate before the Revolution. In 1789 he was elected by the third estate of Paris to the states general, and attracted attention by his speeches against social inequalities. Elected to the National Convention by the department of Haute-Loire, he was named member of the committee of general safety, and then sent as one of the commissioners charged with the surveillance of General C. F. Dumouriez. Delivered with his colleagues to the Austrians on the 3rd of April 1793, he was exchanged for the daughter of Louis XVI. in November 1795. He played an inconspicuous rôle in the council of the Five Hundred. On the 14th of August 1789 the Constituent Assembly made Camus its archivist, and in that capacity he organized the national archives, classified the papers of the different assemblies of the Revolution and drew up analytical tables of the procès-verbaux. He was restored to the office in 1796 and became absorbed in literary work. He remained an austere republican, refusing to take part in the Napoleonic régime.
CAMUS, CHARLES ÉTIENNE LOUIS (1699–1768), French mathematician and mechanician, was born at Crécy-en-Brie, near Meaux, on the 25th of August 1699. He studied mathematics, civil and military architecture, and astronomy, and became associate of the Académie des Sciences, professor of geometry, secretary to the Academy of Architecture and fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1736 he accompanied Pierre Louis Maupertuis and Alexis Claude Clairaut in the expedition to Lapland for the measurement of a degree of the meridian. He died on the 2nd of February 1768. He was the author of a Cours de mathématiques (Paris, 1766), and a number of essays on mathematical and mechanical subjects (see Poggendorff, Biog.-lit. Handwörterbuch).
CAMUS, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH DES (1672–1732), French mechanician, was born near St Mihiel, on the 14th of September 1672. After studying for the church, he devoted himself to mechanical inventions, a number of which he described in his Traité des forces mouvantes pour la pratique des arts et métiers, Paris, 1722. He died in England in 1732.
CAMUS DE MÉZIÈRES, NICOLAS LE (1721–1789), French architect, was born at Paris on the 26th of March 1721, and died it the same city on the 27th of July 1789. He published several works on architectural and related subjects.
CANA, of Galilee, a village of Palestine remarkable as the home of Nathanael, and the scene of Christ’s “beginning of miracles” (John ii. I-II, iv. 46-54). Its site is unknown, but it is evident from the biblical narrative that it was in the neighbourhood of, and higher than, Capernaum. Opinion as to identification is fairly divided between Kefr Kenna and Kana-el-Jelil. The former, about 4 m. N.N.E. of Nazareth, contains a ruined church and a small Christian population; the latter is an uninhabited village about 9 m. N. of Nazareth, with no remains but a few cisterns.
CANAAN, CANAANITES. These geographical and ethnic terms have a shifting reference, which doubtless arises out of the migrations of the tribes to which the term “Canaanites” belongs. Thus in Josh. v. 1 the term seems to be applied to a population on the coast of the Mediterranean, and in Josh. xi. 3, Num. xiii. 29 (cf. also Gen. xiii, 12) not only to these, but to a people in the Jordan Valley. In Isa. xxiii. 11 it seems to be used of Phoenicia, and in Zeph. ii. 5 (where, however, the text is disputed) of Philistia. Most often it is applied comprehensively to the population of the entire west Jordan land and its pre-Israelitish inhabitants. This usage is characteristic of the writer called the Yahwist (J); see e.g. Gen. xii. 5, xxxiii. 18; Ex. xv. 15; Num. xxxiii. 51; Josh. xxii. 9; Judg. in. i; Ps. cvi. 38, and elsewhere. It was also, as Augustine tells us, a usage of the Phoenicians to call their land “Canaan.” This is confirmed by coins of the city of Laodicea by the Lebanon, which bear the legend, “Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan”; these coins are dated under Antiochus IV. (175–164 B.C.), and his successors, Greek writers, too, tell us a fact of much interest, viz. that the original name of Phoenicia was χνα, i.e. Kĕna, a short, collateral form of Kenaʽan or Kanʽan The form Kanʽan is favoured by the Egyptian usage. Seti I. is said to have conquered the Shasu, or Arabian nomads, from the fortress of Taru (Shūr?) to “the Ka-n-ʽ-na,” and Rameses III. to have built a temple to the god Amen in “the Ka-n-ʽ-na.” By this geographical name is probably meant all western Syria and Palestine with Raphia—“the (first) city of the Ka-n-ʽ-na”—for the south-west boundary towards the desert. In the letters sent by governors and princes of Palestine to their Egyptian overlord—commonly known as the Tel-el-Amarna tablets—we find the two forms Kinaḥḥi and Kinaḥna, corresponding to Kenaʽ and Kenaʽan respectively, and standing, as Ed. Meyer has shown, for Syria in its widest extent.
On the name “Canaan” Winckler remarks, “There is at present no prospect of an etymological explanation.” From the fact that Egyptian (though not Hebrew) scribes constantly prefix the article, we may suppose that it originally meant “the country of the Canaanites,” just as the Hebrew phrase “the Lebanon” may originally have meant “the highlands of the Libnites”; and we are thus permitted to group the term “Canaan” with clan-names such as Achan, Akan, Jaakan, Anak (generally with the article prefixed), Kain, Kenan. Nor are scholars more unanimous with regard to the region where the terms “Canaanite” and “Canaan” arose. It may be true that the term Kinaḥḥi in the Amarna letters corresponds to Syria and Palestine in their entirety. But this does not prove that the terms “Canaanite” and “Canaan” arose in that region, for they are presumably much older than the Amarna tablets. Let us refer at this point to a document in Genesis which is perhaps hardly estimated at its true value, the so-called Table of Peoples in Gen. x. Here we find “Canaan” included among the four sons of Ham. If Cush in v. 6 really means Ethiopia, and M-ṣ-r-i-m Egypt, and Put the Libyans, and if Ham is really a Hebraized form of the old Egyptian name for Egypt, Kam-t (black), the passage is puzzling in the extreme. But if, as has recently been suggested, Cush, M-ṣ-r-i-m, and Put are in north Arabia, and Ḥam is the short for Yarḥam or Yeraḥme’el (see i Chr. ii. 25-27, 42), a north Arabian name intimately associated with Caleb, all becomes clear, and Canaan in particular is shown to be an Arabian name. Now it is no mere hypothesis that beginning
- Enarratio in Psalm civ.
- W. M. Müller, Asien und Europa, p. 205.
- The letters are written in the official and diplomatic language—Babylonian, though “Canaanitish” words and idioms are not wanting.
- Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, p. 181.
- These explanations are endorsed by Driver (Genesis, on Gen. x.).
- See the relevant articles in Ency. Bib. and Cheyne’s Genesis and Exodus.