pessimistic side of satiric art); English Caricaturists and Graphic Humorists of the Nineteenth Century, by Graham Everitt (i.e. William Rodgers Richardson), (4to, London, 1886), (a careful and interesting survey); La Caricature en Angleterre, by Augustin Filva (8vo, Paris, 1902), (an able criticism from the point of view of psycho-sociology); The History of Punch, by M. H. Spielmann (8vo, London, 1895), (dealing with caricature art of England during the half-century covered by the book); Magazine of Art, passim, for biographies of English caricaturists—“Our Graphic Humorists”; Social Pictorial Satire, by George du Maurier (12mo, London, 1898); Les Mœurs et la caricature en France, by J. Grand-Carteret (8vo, Paris, 1885); La Caricature et l’humeur français au XIX e siècle, by Raoul Deberdt (8vo, Paris); Les Maîtres de la caricature française en XIX e siècle, by Armand Dayot (Paris); Nos humoristes, by Ad. Brisson (4to, Paris, 1900); Les Mœurs et la caricature en Allemagne, &c., by J. Grand-Carteret (8vo, Paris, 1885). See also biographies of Charles Keene, H. Daumier, John Leech, &c., indicated under those names. (M. H. S.)
CARIGARA, a town of the province of Leyte, island of Leyte, Philippine Islands, on Carigara Bay, 22 m. W. of Tacloban, the capital. Pop. (1903) 19,488, including that of Capoocan (3106), annexed to Carigara in the same year. Carigara is open to coast trade, exports large quantities of hemp, raises much rice, and manufactures cotton and abaca fabrics. It also has important fisheries.
CARIGNANO, a town of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Turin, 11 m. S. by steam tramway from the town of Turin. Pop. (1901) town, 4672, commune, 7104. It has a handsome church (S. Giovanni Battista) erected in 1756–1766 by the architect Benedetto Alfieri di Sostegno (1700–1767), uncle of the poet Alfieri. S. Maria delle Grazie contains the tomb of Bianca Palaeologus, wife of Duke Charles I. of Savoy, at whose court Bayard was brought up. The town passed into the hands of the counts of Savoy in 1418.
Carignano was erected by Charles Emmanuel I. of Savoy into a principality as an appanage for his third son, Thomas Francis (1596–1656), whose descendant, Charles Albert, prince of Carignano, became king of Sardinia on the extinction of the elder line of the house of Savoy with the death of Charles Felix in 1831. The house of Carignano developed two junior branches, those of Soissons and Villafranca. The first of these, which became extinct in 1734, was founded by Eugene Maurice, second son of Thomas, by his wife Marie de Condé, countess of Soissons, who received his mother’s countship as his appanage. In 1662 the town of Yvois in the Ardennes was raised by Louis XIV. into a duchy in his favour, its name being changed at the same time to Carignan. The famous Prince Eugene was the second son of the first duke of Carignan. The branch of Villafranca started with Eugene Marie Louis (d. 1785), second son of Louis Victor of Carignano, whose grandson Eugene (1816–1888), afterwards an admiral in the Italian navy, was created prince of Savoy-Carignano, by King Charles Albert in 1834. He had contracted a morganatic marriage, and in 1888, on the occasion of his silver wedding, the title of countess of Villafranca was bestowed upon his wife, his eldest son, Filiberto, being at the same time created count of Villafranca, and his younger son, Vittorio, count of Soissons.
CARILLON, an arrangement for playing tunes upon a set of bells by mechanical means. The word is said to be a Fr. form of Late Lat. or Ital. quadriglio, a simple dance measure on four notes or for four persons (Lat. quattuor); and is used sometimes for the tune played, sometimes (and more commonly in England) for the set of bells used in playing it. The earliest medieval attempts at bell music, as distinct from mere noise, seem to have consisted in striking a row of small bells by hand with a hammer, and illustrations in MSS. of the 12th and 13th centuries show this process on three, four or even eight bells. The introduction of mechanism in the form either of a barrel (see Barrel-organ) set with pegs or studs and revolving in connexion with the machinery of a clock, or of a keyboard struck by hand (carillon à clavier), made it possible largely to increase the number of bells and the range of harmonies. In Belgium, the home of the carillon the art of the carillonneur was at one time brought to great perfection and held in high esteem (see Bell); but even there it is gradually giving way to mechanism. In England manual skill has never been much employed, though keyboards on the continental model have been introduced, e.g. at the Manchester town hall, at Eaton Hall, and elsewhere; carillon music being mainly confined to hymn tunes at regular intervals (generally three hours), or chimes at the hours and intervening quarters. The “Cambridge” and “Westminster” chimes are very familiar; and more recently chimes have been composed by Sir John Stainer for Freshwater in the Isle of Wight (“Tennyson” Chimes), and by Sir Charles Stanford for “Bow Bells” in London.
CARINI, a town in the province of Palermo, Sicily, 13 m. by rail W.N.W. of Palermo. Pop. (1901) 13,931. On the coast are some ruins of the ancient Hyccara, the only Sican settlement (probably a fishing village) on the coast. It was stormed and taken by the Athenians in 415 B.C., and the inhabitants, among them the famous courtesan Lais, sold as slaves. At La Grazia Christian catacombs have been found (Not. degli Scavi, 1899, 362).
CARINTHIA (Ger. Kärnten), a duchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Styria, N. by Styria and Salzburg, W. by Tirol, and S. by Italy, Görz and Gradisca and Carniola. It has an area of 4005 sq. m. Carinthia is for the most part a mountainous region, divided by the Drave, which traverses it from west to east into two parts. To the north of the valley of the Drave the duchy is occupied by the Hohe Tauern and the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, which belong to the central zone of the Eastern Alps. The Hohe Tauern contains the massifs of the Gross Glockner (12,455 ft.); the Hochnarr (10,670 ft.) and the Ankogel (11,006 ft.), and is traversed by the saddles of the Hochthor and the Malnitzer Tauern, which separates these groups from one another. To the east of the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, namely the Pöllaer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps (7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley. The country south of the Drave is occupied by several groups of the southern limestone zone, namely the Carnic Alps, the Julian Alps, the Karawankas and the Steiner Alps. The Carnic Alps are divided by the Gail valley into the South Carnic group and the northern Gailthal Alps. They are traversed by the Pontebba or Pontafel Pass, through which passes one of the principal Alpine roads from Italy to Austria. The road is covered by the fortress of Malborgeth, where Captain Hensel with a handful of men met with a heroic death defending the place against an overwhelming French force in the campaign of 1809. A similar fate overtook, on the same day, the 18th of May 1809, Captain Hermann von Hermannsdorf and his small garrison, who were defending the Predil fort. This fort covers the road which traverses the Predil Pass in the Julian Alps and is the principal road leading from Carinthia to the Coastland. Commemorative monuments have been erected in both places. The Gailthal Alps end with the Dobratsch or Villacher Alp (7107 ft.), situated to the south-west of Villach (q.v.), which is celebrated as one of the finest views in the whole eastern Alps. South of Hermagor, the principal place of the Gail valley, is the chain of mountains which is famous as being the only place where the beautiful Wulfenia Carinthiaca is found. The highest peaks in the Karawankas are the Grosse Mittagskogel (7033 ft.), the Och Obir (7023 ft.) and the Petzen (6934 ft.). The Ursula Berg (5563 ft.) ends the group of the Karawankas, which are continued by the Steiner Alps.
The principal river is the Drave, which flows from west to east through the length of the duchy, and receives in its course the waters of all the other streams, except the Fella, which reaches the Adriatic by its junction with the Tagliamento. Its principal tributaries are the Gail on the right, and the Möll, the Lieser, the Gurk with the Glan, and the Lavant on the left. Carinthia possesses a great number of Alpine lakes, which, unlike the other Alpine lakes, lie in the longitudinal valleys. The principal lakes are: the Millstätter-see (8½ sq. m. in extent, 908 ft. deep, at an altitude of 1902 ft.), the Wörther-see (17 sq. m. in extent, 212 ft. deep, at an altitude of 1438 ft.), the Ossiach-see (10½ sq. m.