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CARINUS—CARISBROOKE

in extent, 150 ft. deep, at an altitude of 1599 ft.), and the elongated Weissen-see (4½ m. long, 309 ft. deep, at an altitude of 3037 ft.).

The climate is severe in the north and north-west parts, but the south and south-east districts are milder, while the most favoured part is the Lavant valley. Of the total area only 13.71% is arable land, 10.50% is occupied by meadows and gardens, 5.18% by pastures, while 44.24% is covered by forests, almost exclusively pine-forests. Cattle-rearing is well developed, and the horses bred in Carinthia enjoy a good reputation. The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal. Iron ore is extracted in the region of the Saualpe, and is worked in the foundries of St Leonhard, St Gertraud, Prävali, Hirt, Treibach and Eberstein. About two-thirds of the total production of lead in Austria is extracted in Carinthia, the principal places being Bleiberg and Raibl. The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails. The principal manufacturing places are Prävali, Brückl, Klagenfurt, Lippitzbach, Wolfsberg, St Veit and Buchscheiden near Feldkirchen. The manufacture of small-arms is concentrated at Ferlach. Other trades are the manufacture of paper, leather, cement and the exploitation of forests.

The population of Carinthia in 1900 was 367,344, which corresponds to 91 inhabitants per sq. m. According to nationality, 71.54% were Germans, and 28.39% Slovenes, mostly settled in the districts adjoining the Slovene province of Carniola. Over 94% of the population were Roman Catholics. The local diet, of which the bishop of Gurk is a member ex officio, is composed of 37 members, and Carinthia sends 10 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes, the province is divided into seven districts, and an autonomous municipality, Klagenfurt (pop. 24,314), the capital. Other principal places are: Villach (9690), Wolfsberg (4852), St Veit (4667), an old town, the former capital of Carinthia up to 1518, Prävali (4047), Travis (3640), a favourite summer-resort and tourist place, Bleiberg (3435), Völkermarkt (2606) and Spittal (2564).

Carinthia is so called from the Carni, a Celtic people, and in the time of Augustus it formed part of Noricum. After the fall of the Roman empire, it was the nucleus of the kingdom of Carentania, which was founded by Samo, a Frankish adventurer, but soon fell to pieces after his death. Under Charlemagne it constituted a margravate, which in 843 passed into the hands of Louis the German, whose grandson Arnulf was the first to bear the title of duke of Carinthia. The duchy was held by various families during the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, and at length in 1335 was bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria. It was divided into Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern; of these the former fell to France in 1809, but was reconquered in 1813. It was created a separate crownland in 1849.

See Aelschker. Geschichte Kärntens (Klagenfurt, 1885).


CARINUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 283–284, was the elder son of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of the western portion of the empire. He fought with success against the German tribes, but soon left the defence of the Upper Rhine to his legates and returned to Rome, where he abandoned himself to all kinds of debauchery and excess. He also celebrated the ludi Romani on a scale of unexampled magnificence. After the death of Carus, the army in the East demanded to be led back to Europe, and Numerianus, the younger son of Carus, was forced to comply. During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerianus was murdered, and Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Carinus at once left Rome and set out for the East to meet Diocletian. On his way through Pannonia he put down the usurper M. Aurelius Julianus, and encountered the army of Diocletian in Moesia. Carinus was successful in several engagements, and at the battle on the Margus (Morava), according to one account, the valour of his troops had gained the day, when he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced. In another account, the battle is represented as having resulted in a complete victory for Diocletian. Carinus has the reputation of having been one of the worst of the emperors.

Vopiscus, Carinus (mainly the recital of his crimes); Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, 38, Epit. 38; Eutropius ix. 18-20; Zonaras xii. 30; Orosius vii. 25; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie, ii. 24 ff. (Henze).


CARIPE, a small town of Venezuela in the state of Bermúdez, about 53 m. E.S.E. of Cumaná. It is the chief station of the Capuchin missions to the Chayma Indians, founded toward the close of the 17th century, and stands 2635 ft. above sea-level, in a fertile valley of the Sierra Bergantín, long celebrated for its cool, invigorating climate. The locality is also celebrated for the extensive system of caves in the limestone rocks found in its vicinity, which were described by Humboldt in his Personal Narrative. The principal cave, known as the Cueva del Guácharo, extends inward a distance of 2800 ft. with a height of 70-80 ft. These caves are frequented by a species of night-hawk, called guacharo, which nests in the recesses of the rocks. The young are killed in great numbers for their oil. Caripe itself has a population of only 580, but the valley and neighbouring stations have about ten times that number. Caripe should not be confounded with Rio Caribe, a town and port on the Caribbean coast a short distance east of Carúpano, which has a population of about 6000.


CARISBROOKE, a town in the Isle of Wight, England, 1 m. S. of Newport. Pop. (1901) 3993. The valley of the Lugley brook separates the village from the steep conical hill crowned by the castle, the existence of which has given Carisbrooke its chief fame. There are remains of a Roman villa in the valley, but no reliable mention of Carisbrooke occurs in Saxon times, though it has commonly been identified with the Saxon Wihtgaraburh captured by Cerdic in 530. Carisbrooke is not mentioned by name in the Domesday Survey, but Bowcombe, its principal manor, was a dependency of the royal manor of Amesbury, and was obtained from the king by William Fitz Osbern in exchange for three Wiltshire manors. The castle is mentioned in the Survey under Alvington, and was probably raised by William Fitz Osbern, who was made first lord of the Isle of Wight. From this date lordship of the Isle of Wight was always associated with ownership of the castle, which thus became the seat of government of the island. Henry I. bestowed it on Richard de Redvers, in whose family it continued until Isabella de Fortibus sold it to Edward I., after which the government was entrusted to wardens as representatives of the crown. The keep was added to the castle in the reign of Henry I., and in the reign of Elizabeth, when the Spanish Armada was expected, it was surrounded by an elaborate pentagonal fortification. The castle was garrisoned by Baldwin de Redvers for the empress Maud in 1136, but was captured by Stephen. In the reign of Richard II. it was unsuccessfully attacked by the French; Charles I. was imprisoned here for fourteen months before his execution. Afterwards his two youngest children were confined in the castle, and the Princess Elizabeth died there. In 1904 the chapel of St Nicholas in the castle was reopened and reconsecrated, having been rebuilt as a national memorial of Charles I. The remains of the castle are extensive and imposing, and the keeper’s house and other parts are inhabited, but the king’s apartments are in ruins. Within the walls is a well 200 ft. deep; and another in the centre of the keep is reputed to have been still deeper. The church of St Mary, Carisbrooke, has a beautiful Perpendicular tower, and contains transitional Norman portions. Only the site can be traced of the Cistercian priory to which it belonged. This was founded shortly after the Conquest and originated from the endowment which the monks of Lyre near Evreux held in Bowcombe, including the church, mill, houses, land and tithes of the manor. Richard II. bestowed it on the abbey of Mountgrace in Yorkshire. It was restored by Henry IV., but was dissolved by act of parliament in the reign of Henry V., who bestowed it on his newly-founded charter-house at Sheen. Carisbrooke formerly had a considerable market, several mills, and valuable fisheries, but it never acquired municipal or representative rights, and was important only as the site of the castle.

See Victoria County History—Hampshire; William Westall, History of Carisbrooke Castle (1850).