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who built the castle and sent husbandmen to dwell there and till the land. During the centuries of border-strife which followed, the history of Carlisle centres round that of the castle, which formed the chief bulwark against the Scots on the western border, and played an important part in the history of the country down to the rebellion of the young Pretender in 1745. In 1292 a great fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and muniments of the city, so that no original charter is extant before that date. A charter from Edward I., dated 1293, however, exemplifies two earlier grants. The first, from Henry II., confirmed the liberties and customs which the city had theretofore enjoyed, granting in addition a free gild merchant, with other privileges. This grant is exemplified in the second charter, from Henry III., dated 1251. By a writ dated 5 Henry III. the citizens were allowed to hold the city direct from the king, paying a fee-farm rent of £60, instead of the former rent of £50, paid by the medium of the sheriff. A charter from Edward II., dated 1316, grants to the citizens the city, the king’s mills in the city, and the fishery in the Eden, at a fee-farm rent of £80 a year. A charter from Edward III. in 1352 enumerates the privileges and liberties hitherto enjoyed by the citizens, including a market twice a week, on Wednesday and Saturday; a fair for sixteen days at the feast of the Assumption of the Virgin (15th of August); free election of a mayor, bailiffs and two coroners; and the right to hold their markets in the place called “Battailholm.” It also mentions that the city was greatly impoverished by reason of the devastations of the Scots and by pestilence. Confirmations of former privileges were issued by Richard II., Henry IV. and Henry VI. A charter from Edward IV. in 1461, after reciting the damage sustained by the city through fire, reduced the fee-farm rent from £80 to £40, and granted to the citizens the fishery called the sheriff’s net, free of rent. Further confirmations were granted by later sovereigns. Although the city had been under the jurisdiction of a mayor and bailiffs at least as early as 1290, the first charter of incorporation was granted by Elizabeth in 1566; it established a corporation under the style of “a mayor, eleven worshipful persons, and twenty-four able persons.” A charter of James I. confirmed former liberties, and in 1638 Charles I. granted a charter under which the town continued to be governed until 1835. It declared Carlisle a city by itself, and established a corporation consisting of a mayor, 11 aldermen, 24 capital citizens, 2 bailiffs, 2 coroners and a recorder; the mayor, the recorder and 2 senior aldermen to be justices of the peace, and the mayor to be clerk of the market; other officers were a common clerk, a sword-bearer and three serjeants-at-mace. Two charters from Charles II. in 1664 and 1684 were never accepted. The latter granted a three days’ fair or market on the first Wednesday in June. Much valuable information relating to the early history and customs of Carlisle is furnished both by the Dormont Book, which contains an elaborate set of bye-laws dated 1561, and by the records of the eight craft gilds—weavers, smiths, tailors, tanners, shoemakers, skinners, butchers and merchants. The defensive and offensive warfare in which the citizens were constantly engaged until the union of the crowns of England and Scotland left little time for the development of commercial pursuits, and Fuller, writing in the 17th century, says that the sole manufacture, that of fustian, though established shortly after the Restoration, had met with scant encouragement. In 1750 the manufacture of coarse linen cloth was established, and was followed in a few years by the introduction of calico stamperies. The commercial prosperity of Carlisle, however, began with the railway development of the 19th century. In 1283 the citizens of Carlisle were summoned to send two representatives to parliament, but no return is recorded. From 1295 Carlisle continued to return two members until the Redistribution Act of 1885. At the time of the Scottish wars Edward I. held two parliaments at Carlisle—in 1300 and in 1307.

See Victoria County History, Cumberland; R. S. Ferguson, Some Municipal Records of the City of Carlisle (Cumberl. and Westm. Antiq. and Archaeol. Soc., Carlisle and London, 1887), and Royal Charters of Carlisle (ditto, Carlisle, &c., 1894); Mandell Creighton, Carlisle in “Historic Towns” series (London, 1889).

CARLISLE, a borough and the county-seat of Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 18 m. W. by S. of Harrisburg and 118 m. W. by N. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 7620; (1900) 9626 (1148 being negroes); (1910) 10,303. It is served by the Cumberland Valley (controlled by the Pennsylvania railway) and the Gettysburg & Harrisburg railways. The borough is pleasantly situated in the central part of the fertile Cumberland Valley, which is here 12 m. wide. Mount Holly Springs and Boiling Springs are near, and are important summer attractions. In Carlisle is Dickinson College, founded in 1783 by Presbyterians, and named in honour of John Dickinson (q.v.), a benefactor of the college; it was reorganized in 1833 as a Methodist Episcopal College, and is now divided into the college, the school of law (founded in 1834) and Conway Hall, the preparatory department. President James Buchanan and Chief Justice R. B. Taney were graduates. Here are also Metzger College for young ladies, and a well-known United States Indian industrial school, established in 1879 through the efforts of Lieutenant (later Brigadier-General) Richard Henry Pratt (b. 1840), its superintendent until 1904; the school pays especial attention to industrial and agricultural training, and its athletic organizations are famous. A great effort is made to preserve and develop Indian arts and crafts; the instruction given by Mrs Angel Decora Dietz, a Winnebago, in colour work and design, decorating leather, making beadwork and weaving rugs, is particularly noteworthy. On the initiative of the pupils the Leupp Indian Art School was built on the campus in 1906–1907, all materials being purchased with the funds of the athletic association and all work being done by the students. The building is named in honour of Francis Ellington Leupp (b. 1849), U.S. commissioner of Indian affairs in 1905. Carlisle is prominent for the manufacture of boots and shoes, and has machine shops and manufactories of carriages, ribbons, railway frogs and switches, carpets and paper boxes. In 1905 the value of all the factory products was $1,985,743, of which $1,078,401 was the value of boots and shoes. The place was laid out as a town in 1751, was named from Carlisle, Cumberland, England, and was incorporated as a borough in 1872. In 1753 Benjamin Franklin, with two other commissioners, negotiated a treaty with the Ohio Indians here. During the War of Independence the Americans kept here for secure confinement a number of British prisoners, among them Major John André, and in 1794 Carlisle was the headquarters of George Washington during the Whisky Rebellion. On the night of the 1st of July 1863 Carlisle was bombarded by Confederate troops.

CARLOFORTE, a town of Sardinia, in the province of Cagliari, the capital of the small island (6 by 5 m.) of San Pietro (anc. Accipitrum or Ίερακοννῆσος) off the west coast of Sardinia. Pop. (1901) 7693. It lies on the east coast of the island, 6 m. west by sea from Portoscuso, which is 47 m. west by rail from Cagliari. It was founded in 1737 by Charles Emmanuel III. of Savoy, who planted a colony of Genoese, whose dialect and costume still prevail. In 1798 it was attacked by the Tunisians and 933 inhabitants taken away as slaves. They were ransomed after five years and the place fortified. It is now a centre of the tunny fishery, and there are manganese mines also. The coral banks, which were once important, are now exhausted. Three m. to the south-east is the island of S. Antioco.

CARLOMAN (828–880), king of Bavaria and Italy, was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of the East Franks. In 856 he undertook the defence of the eastern frontier of Bavaria against the Bohemians and Moravians, and won considerable fame in various campaigns. He married a daughter of Ernest, count of the Bohemian mark, and in conjunction with his father-in-law resisted the authority of his father in 861. For some years he alternated between rebellion and submission to his father, but in 865 an arrangement was made by which he became possessed of Bavaria and Carinthia as his expectant share of the kingdom of Louis. During the troubles between Louis and his two younger sons Carloman remained faithful to his father, and carried on the war with the Moravians so successfully that in 870 their territory was completely under the power of the