Franks; and when peace was made at Forchheim in 874, they recognized the Frankish supremacy. In 875 the emperor Louis II. died, having named his cousin Carloman as his successor in Italy. Carloman crossed the Alps to claim his inheritance, but was cajoled into returning by the king of the West Franks, Charles the Bald. In 876, on his father’s death, Carloman became actually king of Bavaria, and after a short campaign against the Moravians he went again to Italy in 877 and was crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia; but his negotiations with Pope John VIII. for the imperial crown were fruitless, and personal illness added to the outbreak of an epidemic in his army compelled him to return to Bavaria. Stricken with paralysis, Carloman was unable to prevent his brother Louis from seizing Bavaria; so making a virtue of necessity, he bequeathed the whole of his lands to Louis. He died on the 22nd of September 880 at Öttingen, where he was buried, leaving an illegitimate son, afterwards the emperor Arnulf.
See “Annales Fuldenses,” “Annales Bertiniani,” Regino von Prum, “Chronicon,” all in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, Band i. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826–1892); E. Mühlbacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881); and E. Dümmler, Geschichte des ostfränkischen Reiches (Leipzig, 1887–1888).
CARLOMAN, the name of three Frankish princes.
Carloman (d. 754), mayor of the palace under the Merovingian kings, was a son of Charles Martel, and, together with his brother, Pippin the Short, became mayor on his father’s death in 741, administering the eastern part of the Frankish kingdom. He was successful in extending the power of the Franks in various wars with his troublesome neighbours, and was not less zealous in seeking to strengthen and reform the church in the lands under his rule. In 747 Carloman laid down his office and retired to a monastery which he founded on Monte Soracte, but troubled by the number of his visitors, he subsequently entered a monastery on Monte Casino. He died at Vienne on the 17th of August 754.
Carloman (751–771), king of the Franks, was a son of King Pippin the Short, and consequently a brother of Charlemagne. The brothers became joint kings of the Franks on Pippin’s death in 768, and some trouble which broke out between them over the conduct of the war in Aquitaine was followed by Carloman’s death at Samoussy on the 4th of December 771. He married Gerberga, a daughter of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, who, together with her children, vanished from history soon after her husband’s death.
Carloman (d. 884), king of France, was the eldest son of King Louis II., the Stammerer, and became king, together with his brother Louis III., on his father’s death in 879. Although some doubts were cast upon their legitimacy, the brothers obtained recognition and in 880 made a division of the kingdom, Carloman receiving Burgundy and the southern part of France. In 882 he became sole king owing to his brother’s death, but the kingdom was in a very deplorable condition, and his power was very circumscribed. Carloman met his death while hunting on the 12th of December 884.
See E. Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome ii. (Paris, 1903).
CARLOS I. (1863–1908), king of Portugal, the third sovereign of Portugal of the line of Braganza-Coburg, son of King Louis I. and Maria Pia, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, was born on the 28th of September 1863. When about twenty years of age he spent a considerable time in travelling, visiting England in 1883. On the 22nd of May 1886 he married Marie Amélie, daughter of Philippe, duc d’Orléans, comte de Paris, and on the death of his father (19th of October 1889) he succeeded to the throne of Portugal. In that year the British government found it necessary to make formal remonstrances against Portuguese encroachments in South Africa, and relations between the two countries were greatly strained for some time. The king’s attitude during this critical period was one of conciliation, and his temperate, though firm, speech on opening the Cortes in January 1890 did much to strengthen the party of peace. In 1900–1901 also his friendly attitude towards Great Britain was shown by cordial toasts at a banquet to the officers of the British fleet at Lisbon. King Carlos distinguished himself as a patron of science and literature, and was himself an artist of some repute. In March 1894 he took a very active part in the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator, and a year later he decorated the Portuguese poet, João de Deus, with much honour at Lisbon. He took a great personal interest in deep-sea soundings and marine exploration, and published an account of some of his own investigations, the results themselves being shown at an oceanographic exhibition opened by him on the 12th of April 1897. In May 1907 the king suspended the constitution of Portugal and temporarily appointed Senhor Franco as dictator with a view to carrying out certain necessary reforms. Some discontent was aroused by this proceeding; this was increased by Franco’s drastic measures, and on the 1st of February 1908 King Carlos and his elder son, Louis, duke of Braganza (1887–1908), were assassinated whilst driving through the streets of Lisbon. The king was succeeded by his only surviving son, Manuel, duke of Beja (b. 1889), who took the title of Manuel II.
See S. M. El Rei D. Carlos I. e sua obra artistica e scientifica (Lisbon, 1908).
CARLOS, DON (1545–1568), prince of Asturias, was the son of Philip II. king of Spain, by his first wife Maria, daughter of John III., king of Portugal, and was born at Valladolid on the 8th of July 1545. His mother died a few days after his birth, and the prince, who was very delicate, grew up proud, wilful and indolent, and soon began to show signs of insanity. In 1559 he was betrothed to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II., king of France, a lady who a few months later became the third wife of his father; in 1560 he was recognized as the heir to the throne of Castile, and three years later to that of Aragon. Other brides were then suggested for the prince; Mary, queen of Scots, Margaret, another daughter of Henry II., and Anne, a daughter of the emperor Maximilian II.; but meanwhile his mental derangement had become much more acute, and his condition could no longer be kept secret. In 1562 he met with an accident which was followed by a serious illness, and after his recovery he showed more obvious signs of insanity, while his conduct both in public and in private was extremely vicious and disorderly. He took a marked dislike to the duke of Alva, possibly because he wished to proceed to the Netherlands instead of the duke, and he exhibited a morbid antipathy towards his father, whose murder he even contemplated. At length in January 1568, when he had made preparations for flight from Spain, he was placed in confinement by order of Philip, and on the 24th of July of the same year he died. This event is still enveloped in some mystery. Philip has been accused of murdering his son, and from what is known of the king’s character this supposition is by no means improbable. It is known that the king appointed commissioners to try the prince, and he may have been put to death for treason in accordance with their verdict. It has also been suggested that his crime was heresy, and that his death was due to poison, and other solutions of the mystery have been put forward. On the other hand, it should be remembered that the health of Carlos was very poor, and that his outrageous behaviour in captivity would have undermined a much stronger constitution than his own. Consequently there is nothing strange or surprising in his death from natural causes, and while no decisive verdict upon this question can be given, Philip may perhaps be granted the benefit of the doubt. By some writers the sad fate and early death of Carlos have been connected with the story of his unlawful attachment to his promised bride, Elizabeth, who soon became his stepmother, and whose death followed so quickly upon his own. There is circumstantial evidence for this tale. The loss of an affianced bride, followed by hatred between supplanted and supplanter, who were father and son, then the increasing infirmity of the slighted prince, and finally the almost simultaneous deaths of the pair. But mature historical research dismisses this story as a fable. It has, however, served as the subject for romance. Schiller and Alfieri, J. G. de Campristron in Andronic, and Lord John Russell have made it the subject of dramas, and other dramas based upon the life of Don Carlos have been written by Thomas Otway, M. A. Chénier, J. P. de Montalvan, and D. X. de Enciso.