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CARTWRIGHT, T.—CARUS

Wilfrid Laurier to power in 1896 he became minister of trade and commerce. In 1898–1899 he represented Canada on the Anglo-American joint high commission at Quebec. In 1904 failing health led to his retirement to the senate. He acted in Sir Wilfrid Laurier’s absence at the Imperial Conference 1907 as acting premier.


CARTWRIGHT, THOMAS (c. 1535–1603), English Puritan divine, was born in Hertfordshire. He studied divinity at St John’s College, Cambridge, but on Mary’s accession had to leave the university, and found occupation as clerk to a counsellor-at-law. On the accession of Elizabeth, he resumed his theological studies, and was soon afterwards elected fellow of St John’s and later of Trinity College. In 1564 he opposed John Preston in a theological disputation held on the occasion of Elizabeth’s state visit, and in the following year helped to bring to a head the Puritan attitude on church ceremonial and organization. He was popular in Ireland as chaplain to the archbishop of Armagh (1565–1567), and in 1569 he was appointed Lady Margaret professor of divinity at Cambridge; but John Whitgift, on becoming vice-chancellor, deprived him of the post in December 1570, and—as master of Trinity—of his fellowship in September 1571. This was a natural consequence of the use which he made of his position; he inveighed bitterly against the hierarchy and constitution of the Anglican Church, which he compared unfavourably with the primitive Christian organization. So keen was the struggle between him and Whitgift that the chancellor, William Cecil, had to intervene. After his deprivation by Whitgift, Cartwright visited Beza at Geneva. He returned to England in 1572, and might have become professor of Hebrew at Cambridge but for his expressed sympathy with the notorious “Admonition to the Parliament” by John Field and Thomas Wilcox. To escape arrest he again went abroad, and officiated as clergyman to the English residents at Antwerp and then at Middelburg. In 1576 he visited and organized the Huguenot churches of the Channel Islands, and after revising the Rhenish version of the New Testament, again settled as pastor at Antwerp, declining the offer of a chair at St Andrews. In 1585 he returned without permission to London, was imprisoned for a short time, and became master of the earl of Leicester’s hospital at Warwick. In 1590 he was summoned before the court of high commission and imprisoned, and in 1591 he was once more committed to the Fleet. But he was not treated harshly, and powerful influence soon secured his liberation. He visited Guernsey (1595–1598), and spent his closing years in honour and prosperity at Warwick, where he died on the 27th of December 1603. Cartwright was a man of much culture and originality, but exceedingly impulsive. His views were distinctly Presbyterian, and he stoutly opposed the Brownists or Independents. He never conceived of a separation between church and state, and would probably have refused to tolerate any Nonconformity with his reformed national Presbyterian church. To him, however, the Puritanism of his day owed its systematization and much of its force.


CARTWRIGHT, WILLIAM (1611–1643), English dramatist and divine, the son of a country gentleman who had been reduced to keeping an inn, was born at Northway, Gloucestershire, in 1611. Anthony à Wood, whose notice of Cartwright is in the nature of a panegyric, gives this account of his origin, which is probably correct, although it is contradicted by statements made in David Lloyd’s Memoirs. He was educated at the free school of Cirencester, at Westminster school, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his M.A. degree in 1635. He became, says Wood, “the most florid and seraphical preacher in the university,” and appears to have been no less admired as a reader in metaphysics. In 1642 he was made succentor of Salisbury cathedral, and in 1643 he was chosen junior proctor of the university. He died on the 29th of November of the same year. Cartwright was a “son” of Ben Jonson and an especial favourite with his contemporaries. The collected edition of his poems (1651) contains commendatory verses by Henry Lawes, who set some of his songs to music, by Izaak Walton, Alexander Brome, Henry Vaughan and others, and the king wore mourning on the day of his funeral. His plays are, with the exception of The Ordinary, extremely fantastic in plot, and stilted and artificial in treatment. They are: The Royal Slave (1636), produced by the students of Christ Church before the king and queen, with music by Henry Lawes; The Lady Errant (acted, 1635–1636; printed, 1651); The Siege, or Love’s Convert (printed 1651). In The Ordinary (1635?) he produced a comedy of real life, in imitation of Jonson, representing pot-house society. It is reprinted in Dodsley’s Old Plays (ed. Hazlitt, vol. xii.).


CARUCATE, or Carrucate (from the Med. Lat. carrucata, from carruca, a wheeled plough), a measure of land, based probably on the area that could be ploughed by a team of oxen in a year; hence “carucage” means a tax levied on each “carucate” of land (see Hide).


CARÚPANO, a town and port of the state of Bermúdez, Venezuela, 65 m. N.E. of the city of Cumaná. Pop. (1908, estimate) 8600. Carúpano is situated on the Caribbean coast at the opening of two valleys, and is a port of call for several regular steamship lines. Its mean annual temperature is 81° F., but the climate is healthy, because of its open situation on the coast. The country immediately behind the town is rough, but there is a considerable export of cacáo, coffee, sugar, cotton, timber and rum.


CARUS, KARL GUSTAV (1789–1869), German physiologist and psychologist, distinguished also as an art critic and a landscape painter, was born and educated at Leipzig. After a course in chemistry, he began the systematic study of medicine and in 1811 became a Privat docent. On the subject which he selected (comparative anatomy) no lectures had previously been given at Leipzig, and Carus soon established a reputation as a medical teacher. In the war of 1813 he was director of the military hospital at Pfaffendorf, near Leipzig, and in 1814 professor to the new medical college at Dresden, where he spent the remainder of his life. He was made royal physician in 1827, and a privy councillor in 1862. He died on the 28th of July 1869. In philosophy Carus belonged to the school of Schelling, and his works are thoroughly impregnated with the spirit of that system. He regarded inherited tendency as a proof that the cell has a certain psychic life, and pointed out that individual differences are less marked in the lower than in the higher organisms. Of his many works the most important are:—Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomic und Physiologie (Dresden, 1828); System der Physiologie (2nd ed., 1847–1849); Psyche: zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Seele (1846, 3rd ed. Stuttgart, 1860); Physis, zur Geschichte des leiblichen Lebens (Stuttgart, 1851); Natur und Idee (Vienna, 1861); Symbolik des menschlichen Gestalts (Leipz., 1853, 2nd ed., 1857); Atlas der Kranioskopie (2nd ed. Leipz., 1864); Vergleichende Psychologie (Vienna, 1866).

See his autobiography, Lebenserinnerungen und Denkwürdigkeiten (4 vols., 1865–1866); K. von Reichenbach, Odische Erwiederungen an die Herren Professoren Fortlage . . . und Hofrath Carus (1856). His England und Schottland im Jahre 1844 was translated by S. C. Davison (1846).


CARUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Roman emperor A.D. 282–283, was born probably at Narbona (more correctly, Narona) in Illyria, but was educated at Rome. He was a senator, and had filled various civil and military posts before he was appointed prefect of the praetorian guards by the emperor Probus, after whose murder at Sirmium he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was himself suspected of having been an accessory to the deed. He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, but contented himself with an announcement of the fact to the senate. Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerianus, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire, and took Numerianus with him on the expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus. Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, conquered Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris. But his hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death. One day, after a violent storm, it was announced that he was dead. His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound