subsequently entrusted by his own government with similar missions to Syria and the Red Sea. He was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1875. After serving as vice-consul at Jaffa from 1880 to 1882, he returned to Paris as “secrétaire-interprète” for oriental languages, and in 1886 was appointed consul of the first class. He subsequently accepted the post of director of the École des Langues Orientales and professor at the Collège de France. In 1889 he was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, of which he had been a correspondent since 1880. In 1896 he was promoted to be consul-general, and was minister plenipotentiary in 1906. He was the first in England to expose the famous forgeries of Hebrew texts offered to the British Museum by M. W. Shapira (q.v.) in 1883, and in 1903 he took a prominent part in the investigation of the so-called “tiara of Saïtapharnes.” This tiara had been purchased by the Louvre for 400,000 francs, and exhibited as a genuine antique. Much discussion arose as to the perpetrators of the fraud, some believing that it came from southern Russia. It was agreed, however, that the whole object, except perhaps the band round the tiara, was of modern manufacture.
His chief publications, besides a number of contributions to journals, are:—Palestine inconnue (1886), Études d’archéologie orientale (1880, &c.), Les Fraudes archéologiques (1885), Recueil d’archéologie orientale (1885, &c.), Album d’antiquités orientales (1897, &c.).
CLERMONT-L’HERAULT, or Clermont de Lodève, a town of southern France in the department of Hérault, 10 m. S.S.E. by rail of Lodève. Pop. (1906) 4731. The town is built on the slope of a hill which is crowned by an ancient castle and skirted by the Rhonel, a tributary of the Lergue. It has an interesting church of the 13th and 14th centuries. The chief manufacture is that of cloth for military clothing, and woollen goods, an industry which dates from the latter half of the 17th century. Tanning and leather-dressing are also carried on, and there is trade in wine, wool and grain. Among the public institutions are a tribunal of commerce, a chamber of arts and manufactures, a board of trade-arbitration and a communal college. The town was several times taken and retaken in the religious wars of the 16th century.
CLERMONT-TONNERRE, the name of a French family, members of which played some part in the history of France, especially in Dauphiné, from about 1100 to the Revolution. Sibaud, lord of Clermont in Viennois, who first appears in 1080, was the founder of the family. His descendant, another Sibaud, commanded some troops which aided Pope Calixtus II. in his struggle with the anti-pope Gregory VIII.; and in return for this service it is said that the pope allowed him to add certain emblems—two keys and a tiara—to the arms of his family. A direct descendant, Ainard (d. 1349), called vicomte de Clermont, was granted the dignity of captain-general and first baron of Dauphiné by his suzerain Humbert, dauphin of Viennois, in 1340; and in 1547 Clermont was made a county for Antoine (d. 1578), who was governor of Dauphiné and the French king’s lieutenant in Savoy. In 1572 Antoine’s son Henri was created a duke, but as this was only a “brevet” title it did not descend to his son. Henri was killed before La Rochelle in 1573. In 1596 Henri’s son, Charles Henri, count of Clermont (d. 1640), added Tonnerre to his heritage; but in 1648 this county was sold by his son and successor, François (d. 1679).
A member of a younger branch of Charles Henri’s descendants was Gaspard de Clermont-Tonnerre (1688–1781). This soldier served his country during a long period, fighting in Bohemia and Alsace, and then distinguishing himself greatly at the battles of Fontenoy and Lawfeldt. In 1775 he was created duke of Clermont-Tonnerre, and made a peer of France; as the senior marshal (cr. 1747) of France he assisted as constable at the coronation of Louis XVI. in 1774. His son and successor, Charles Henri Jules, governor of Dauphiné, was guillotined in July 1794, a fate which his grandson, Gaspard Charles, had suffered at Lyons in the previous year. A later duke, Aimé Marie Gaspard (1779–1865), served for some years as a soldier, afterwards becoming minister of marine and then minister of war under Charles X., and retiring into private life after the revolution of 1830. Aimé’s grandson, Roger, duke of Clermont-Tonnerre, was born in 1842.
Among other distinguished members of this family was Catherine (c. 1545–1603), only daughter of Claude de Clermont-Tonnerre. This lady, dame d’honneur to Henry II.’s queen, Catherine de’ Medici, and afterwards wife of Albert de Gondi, duc de Retz, won a great reputation by her intellectual attainments, being referred to as the “tenth muse” and the “fourth grace.” One of her grandsons was the famous cardinal de Retz. Other noteworthy members of collateral branches of the family were: François (1629–1701), bishop of Noyon from 1661 until his death, a member of the French Academy, notorious for his inordinate vanity; Stanislas M. A., comte de Clermont-Tonnerre (q.v.); and Anne Antoine Jules (1740–1830), cardinal and bishop of Châlons, who was a member of the states-general in 1789, afterwards retiring into Germany, and after the return of the Bourbons to France became archbishop of Toulouse.
CLERMONT-TONNERRE, STANISLAS MARIE ADELAIDE, Comte de (1757–1792), French politican, was born at Pont-à-Mousson on the 10th of October 1757. At the beginning of the Revolution he was a colonel, with some reputation as a freemason and a Liberal. He was elected to the states-general of 1789 by the noblesse of Paris, and was the spokesman of the minority of Liberal nobles who joined the Third Estate on the 25th of June. He desired to model the new constitution of France on that of England. He was elected president of the Constituent Assembly on the 17th of August 1789; but on the rejection by the Assembly of the scheme elaborated by the first constitutional committee, he attached himself to the party of moderate royalists, known as monarchiens, led by P. V. Malouet. His speech in favour of reserving to the crown the right of absolute veto under the new constitution drew down upon him the wrath of the advanced politicians of the Palais Royal; but in spite of threats and abuse he continued to advocate a moderate liberal policy, especially in the matter of removing the political disabilities of Jews and Protestants and of extending the system of trial by jury. In January 1790 he collaborated with Malouet in founding the Club des Impartiaux and the Journal des Impartiaux, the names of which were changed in November to the Société des Amis de la Constitution Monarchique and Journal de la Société, &c.. in order to emphasize their opposition to the Jacobins (Société des Amis de la Constitution). This club was denounced by Barnave in the Assembly (January 21st, 1791), and on the 28th of March it was attacked by a mob, whereupon it was closed by order of the Assembly. Clermont-Tonnerre was murdered by the populace during the rising of the 9th and 10th of August 1792. He was an excellent orator, having acquired practice in speaking, before the Revolution, in the masonic lodges. He is a good representative of the type of the grands seigneurs holding advanced and liberal ideas, who helped to bring about the movement of 1789, and then tried in vain to arrest its course.
See Recueil des opinions de Stanislas de Clermont-Tonnerre (4 vols., Paris, 1791), the text of his speeches as published by himself; A. Aulard, Les Orateurs de la Constituante (2nd ed., Paris, 1905).
CLERUCHY (Gr. κληρουχία, from κλῆρος, a lot, ἔχειν, to have), in ancient Greek history a kind of colony composed of Athenian citizens planted, practically as a garrison, in a conquered country. Strictly, the settlers (cleruchs) were not colonists, inasmuch as they retained their status as citizens of Athens (e.g. ὁ δῆμος ὁ ἐν Ήφαιστίᾳ), and their allotments were politically part of Attic soil. These settlements were of three kinds: (1) where the earlier inhabitants were extirpated or expatriated, and the settlers occupied the whole territory; (2) where the settlers occupied allotments in the midst of a conquered people; and (3) where the inhabitants gave up portions of land to settlers in return for certain pecuniary concessions. The primary object (cf. the 4000 cleruchs settled in 506 B.C. upon the lands of the conquered oligarchs of Euboea, known as the Hippobotae) was unquestionably military, and in the later days of the Delian
- It seems (Strabo, p. 635) that similar colonies were sent out by the Milesians, e.g. to Leros.