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CLERVAUX—CLEVELAND, DUCHESS OF

League the system was the simplest precaution against disaffection on the part of the allies, the strength of whose resentment may be gathered from an inscription (Hicks and Hill, 101 [81]), which, in setting forth the terms of the second Delian Confederacy, expressly forbids the holding of land by Athenians in allied territory.

A secondary object of the cleruchies was social or agrarian, to provide a source of livelihood to the poorer Athenians. Plutarch (Pericles, 11) suggests that Pericles by this means rid the city of the idle and mischievous loafers; but it would appear that the cleruchs were selected by lot, and in any case a wise policy would not deliberately entrust important military duties to recognized wastrels. When we remember that in 50 years of the 5th century some 10,000 cleruchs went out, it is clear that the drain on the citizen population was considerable.

It is impossible to decide precisely how far the state retained control over the cleruchs. Certainly they were liable to military service and presumably to that taxation which fell upon Athenians at home. That they were not liable for the tribute which members of the Delian League paid is clear from the fact that the assessments of places where cleruchs were settled immediately went down considerably (cf. the Periclean cleruchies, 450-445); indeed, this follows from their status as Athenian citizens, which is emphasized by the fact that they retained their membership of deme and tribe. In internal government the cleruchs adopted the Boulē and Assembly system of Athens itself; so we read of Polemarchs, Archons Eponymi, Agoranomi, Strategi, in various places. With a measure of local self-government there was also combined a certain central authority (e.g. in the matter of jurisdiction, some case being tried by the Nautodicae at Athens); in fact we may assume that the more important cases, particularly those between a cleruch and a citizen at home, were tried before the Athenian dicasts. In a few cases, the cleruchs, e.g. in the case of Lesbos (427), were apparently allowed to remain in Athens receiving rent for their allotments from the original Lesbian owners (Thuc. iii. 50); but this represents the perversion of the original idea of the cleruchy to a system of reward and punishment.

See G. Gilbert, Constitutional Antiquities of Athens and Sparta (Eng. trans., London, 1895), but note that Brea, wrongly quoted as an example, is not a cleruchy but a colony (Hicks and Hill, 41 [29]); A. H. J. Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional Antiquities (London, 1896); for the Periclean cleruchs see Pericles; Delian League.

CLERVAUX (clara vallis), a town in the northern province of Oesling, grand-duchy of Luxemburg, on the Clerf, a tributary of the Sûre. Pop. (1905) 866. In old days it was the fief of the de Lannoy family, and the present proprietor is the bearer of a name not less well known in Belgian history, the count de Berlaymont. The old castle of the de Lannoys exists, and might easily be restored, but its condition is now neglected and dilapidated. In 1798 the people of Clervaux specially distinguished themselves against the French in an attempt to resist the institution of the conscription. The survivors of what was called the Kloppel-krieg (the “cudgel war”) were shot, and a fine monument commemorates the heroism of the men of Clervaux.

CLETUS, formerly regarded as the name of one of the early successors of St Peter in the see of Rome, or, according to Epiphanius and Rufinus, as sharing the direction of the Roman Church with Linus during Peter’s lifetime. He has been identified beyond doubt with Anencletus (q.v.). See Père Colombier, in Rev. des questions hist. Ap. 1st, 1876, p. 413.

CLEVEDON, a watering-place in the northern parliamentary division of Somersetshire, England, on the Bristol Channel, 15½ m. W. of Bristol on a branch of the Great Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5900. The cruciform church of St Andrew has Norman and later portions; it is the burial-place of Henry Hallam the historian, and members of his family, including his sons Arthur and Henry. Clevedon Court is a remarkable medieval mansion, dating originally from the early part of the 14th century, though much altered in the Elizabethan and other periods. The house is considered to be the original of “Castlewood” in Thackeray’s Esmond; the novelist was acquainted with the place through his friendship with the Rev. William Brookfield and his wife, the daughter of Sir Charles Elton of Clevedon Court.

CLEVELAND, BARBARA VILLIERS, Duchess of (1641–1709), mistress of the English king Charles II., was the daughter of William Villiers, 2nd Viscount Grandison (d. 1643), by his wife Mary (d. 1684), daughter of Paul, 1st Viscount Bayning. In April 1659 Barbara married Roger Palmer, who was created earl of Castlemaine two years later, and soon after this marriage her intimacy with Charles II. began. The king was probably the father of her first child, Anne, born in February 1661, although the paternity was also attributed to one of her earliest lovers, Philip Stanhope, 2nd earl of Chesterfield (1633–1713). Mistress Palmer, as Barbara was called before her husband was made an earl, was naturally much disliked by Charles’s queen, Catherine of Braganza, but owing to the insistence of the king she was made a lady of the bedchamber to Catherine, and began to mix in the political intrigues of the time, showing an especial hatred towards Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, who reciprocated this feeling and forbad his wife to visit her. Her house became a rendezvous for the enemies of the minister, and according to Pepys she exhibited a wild paroxysm of delight when she heard of Clarendon’s fall from power in 1667. Whilst enjoying the royal favour Lady Castlemaine formed liaisons with various gentlemen, which were satirized in public prints, and a sharp quarrel which occurred between her and the king in 1667 was partly due to this cause. But peace was soon made, and her influence, which had been gradually rising, became supreme at court in 1667 owing to the marriage of Frances Stuart (la belle Stuart) (1648–1702) with Charles Stuart, 3rd duke of Richmond (1640–1672). Accordingly Louis XIV. instructed his ambassador to pay special attention to Lady Castlemaine, who had become a Roman Catholic in 1663.

In August 1670 she was created countess of Southampton and duchess of Cleveland, with remainder to her first and third sons, Charles and George Palmer, the king at this time not admitting the paternity of her second son Henry; and she also received many valuable gifts from Charles. An annual income of £4700 from the post office was settled upon her, and also other sums chargeable upon the revenue from the customs and the excise, whilst she obtained a large amount of money from seekers after office, and in other ways. Nevertheless her extravagance and her losses at gaming were so enormous that she was unable to keep up her London residence, Cleveland House, St James’s, and was obliged to sell the contents of her residence at Cheam. About 1670 her influence over Charles began to decline. She consoled herself meanwhile with lovers of a less exalted station in life, among them John Churchill, afterwards duke of Marlborough, and William Wycherley; by 1674 she had been entirely supplanted at court by Louise de Kéroualle, duchess of Portsmouth. Soon afterwards the duchess of Cleveland went to reside in Paris, where she formed an intrigue with the English ambassador, Ralph Montagu, afterwards duke of Montagu (d. 1709), who lost his position through some revelations which she made to the king. She returned to England just before Charles’s death in 1685. In July 1705 her husband, the earl of Castlemaine, whom she had left in 1662, died; and in the same year the duchess was married to Robert (Beau) Feilding (d. 1712), a union which was declared void in 1707, as Feilding had a wife living. She died at Chiswick on the 5th of October 1709.

Bishop Burnet describes her as “a woman of great beauty, but most enormously vicious and ravenous, foolish but imperious, ever uneasy to the king, and always carrying on intrigues with other men, while yet she pretended she was jealous of him.” Dryden addressed Lady Castlemaine in his fourth poetical Epistle in terms of great adulation, and Wycherley dedicated to her his first play, Love in a Wood. Her portrait was frequently painted by Sir Peter Lely and others, and many of these portraits are now found in various public and private collections. By Charles II. she had three sons and either one or two daughters.