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She had also in 1686 a son by the actor Cardonnell Goodman (d. 1699), and one or two other daughters.

Her eldest son, Charles Fitzroy (1662–1730), was created in 1675 earl of Chichester and duke of Southampton, and became duke of Cleveland and earl of Southampton on his mother’s death. Her second son, Henry (1663–1690), was created earl of Euston in 1672 and duke of Grafton in 1675; by his wife Isabella, daughter of Henry Bennet, earl of Arlington, he was the direct ancestor of the later dukes of Grafton; he was the most popular and the most able of the sons of Charles II., saw a considerable amount of military service, and met his death through a wound received at the storming of Cork. Her third son, George (1665–1716), was created duke of Northumberland in 1683, and died without issue, after having served in the army. Her daughters were Anne (1661–1722), married in 1674 to Thomas Lennard, Lord Dacre (d. 1715), who was created earl of Sussex in 1684; Charlotte (1664–1718), married in 1677 to Edward Henry Lee, earl of Lichfield (d. 1716); and Barbara (1672–1737), the reputed daughter of John Churchill, who entered a nunnery in France, and became by James Douglas, afterwards 4th duke of Hamilton (1658–1712), the mother of an illegitimate son, Charles Hamilton (1691–1754).

The first husband of the duchess, Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemaine (1634–1705), diplomatist and author, was an ardent Roman Catholic, who defended his co-religionists in several publications. Having served in the war against Holland in 1665–67, he wrote in French an account of this struggle, which was translated into English and published by T. Price in London in 1671. Having been denounced by Titus Oates as a Jesuit, he was tried and acquitted, afterwards serving James II. as ambassador to Pope Innocent XI., a mission which led to a brief imprisonment after the king’s flight from England. Subsequently his Jacobite sympathies caused him to be suspected by the government, and his time was mainly spent either in prison or in exile. The earl died at Oswestry on the 21st of July 1705.

The title of duke of Cleveland, which had descended in 1709 to Charles Fitzroy, together with that of duke of Southampton, became extinct when Charles’s son William, the 2nd duke, died without issue in 1774. One of the first duke’s daughters, Grace, was married in 1725 to Henry Vane, 3rd Baron Barnard, afterwards earl of Darlington (d. 1758), and their grandson William Henry Vane (1766–1842) was created duke of Cleveland in 1833. The duke was succeeded in the title in turn by three of his sons, who all died without male issue; and consequently when Harry George, the 4th duke, died in 1891 the title again became extinct.

Previous to the creation of the dukedom of Cleveland there was an earldom of Cleveland which was created in 1626 in favour of Thomas, 4th Baron Wentworth (1591–1667), and which became extinct on his death.

See the article Charles II. and the bibliography thereto; G. S. Steinmann, Memoir of Barbara, duchess of Cleveland (London, 1871), and Addenda (London, 1874); and the articles (“Villiers, Barbara” and “Palmer, Roger”) in the Dictionary of National Biography, vols. xliii. and lviii. (London, 1895–1899).

CLEVELAND (or Cleiveland), JOHN (1613–1658), English poet and satirist, was born at Loughborough, where he was baptized on the 20th of June 1613. His father was assistant to the rector and afterwards vicar of Hinckley. John Cleveland was educated at Hinckley school under Richard Vines, who is described by Fuller as a champion of the Puritan party. In his fifteenth year he was entered at Christ’s College, Cambridge, and in 1634 was elected to a fellowship at St John’s. He took his M.A. degree in 1635, and was appointed college tutor and reader in rhetoric. His Latinity and oratorical powers were warmly praised by Fuller, who also commends the “lofty fancy” of his verse. He eagerly opposed the candidature of Oliver Cromwell as M.P. for Cambridge, and when the Puritan party triumphed there Cleveland, like many other Cambridge students, found his way (1643) to Oxford. His gifts as a satirist were already known, and he was warmly received by the king, whom he followed (1645) to Newark. In that year he was formally deprived of his Cambridge fellowship as a “malignant.” He was judge-advocate in the garrison at Newark, and under the governor defended the town until in 1646 Charles I. ordered the surrender of the place to Leslie; when there is a curious story that the Scottish general contemptuously dismissed him as a mere ballad-monger. He saw Charles’s error in giving himself into the hands of the Scots, and his indignation when they surrendered the king to the Parliament is expressed in the vigorous verses of “The Rebel Scot,” the sting of which survives even now. Cleveland wandered over the country depending on the alms of the Royalists for bread. He at length found a refuge at Norwich in the house of Edward Cooke, but in 1655 he was arrested as being of no particular occupation, and moreover a man whose great abilities “rendered him able to do the greater disservice.” He spent three months in prison at Yarmouth, but was released by order of Cromwell, to whom he addressed a manly appeal, in which he declared his fidelity to the royal house, pointing out at the same time that his poverty and inoffensiveness were sufficient assurance that his freedom was no menace to Cromwell’s government. He was released early in 1656, and seems to have renewed his wanderings, finding his way eventually to Gray’s Inn, where Aubrey says he and Samuel Butler had a “club” every night. There he died on the 29th of April 1658.

Cleveland’s poems were more highly esteemed than Milton’s by his contemporaries, and his popularity is attested by the very numerous editions of his works. His poems are therefore of great value as an index to the taste of the 17th century. His verse is frequently obscure and full of the far-fetched conceits of the “metaphysical” poets, none of whom surpassed the ingenuity of “Fuscara, or the Bee Errant.” His satires are vigorous personal attacks, the interest of which is, from the nature of the subject, often ephemeral; but the energy of his invective leaves no room for obscurity in such pieces as “Smectymnuus, or the Club Divines,” “Rupertismus” and “The Rebel Scot.”

Cleveland’s works are: “Character of a London Diurnal,” a broadside; Monumentum regale ... (1649), chiefly by Cleveland, containing three of his elegies on the king; “The King’s Disguise” (1646); “On the Memory of Mr Edward King,” in the collection of verse which also included Milton’s “Lycidas,” and many detached poems.

For a bibliographical account of Cleveland’s poems see J. M. Berdan, The Poems of John Cleveland (New York, 1903), in which there is a table of the contents of twenty-three editions, of which the chief are: The Character of a London Diurnal, with Several Select Poems (1647); Poems. By John Cleavland. With additions, never before printed (1659); J. Cleaveland Revived . . . (1659), in which the editor, E. Williamson, says he inserted poems by other authors, trusting to the critical faculty of the readers to distinguish Cleveland’s work from the rest; Clievelandi Vindiciae . . . (1677), edited by two of Cleveland’s former pupils, Bishop Lake and S. Drake, who profess to take out the spurious pieces; and a careless compilation, The Works of John Cleveland ... (1687), containing poems taken from all these sources. A prefatory note by Williamson makes it clear that only a small proportion of Cleveland’s political poems have survived, many of them having been dispersed in MS. among his friends and so lost, and that he refused to authenticate an edition of his works, although most of the earlier collections were genuine.

CLEVELAND, STEPHEN GROVER 1837–1908), president of the United States from 1885 to 1889, and again from 1893 to 1897, was born, the fifth in a family of nine children, in the village of Caldwell, Essex county, New Jersey, on the 18th of March 1837. His father, Richard F. Cleveland, a clergyman of the Presbyterian Church, was of good colonial stock, a descendant of Moses Cleveland, who emigrated from Ipswich, England, to Massachusetts in 1635. The family removed to Fayetteville, N.Y., and afterwards to Clinton, N.Y. It was intended that young Grover should be educated at Hamilton College, but this was prevented by his father’s death in 1852. A few years later he drifted westward with twenty-five dollars in his pocket, and the autumn of 1855 found him in a law office in the city of Buffalo. At the end of four years (1859), he was admitted to the bar.

In 1863 he was appointed assistant district attorney of Erie county, of which Buffalo is the chief city. This was his first