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resorted to by the government. Bonds were issued and sresorted to by the government. Bonds were issued and sold to the amount of $162,000,000. The business world was in a state of constant agitation. Bank failures were numerous and commercial distress widespread. Among the consequences of the panic was a reduction of wages in many employments, accompanied by labour troubles more or less serious. The centre of disturbance was the Pullman strike at Chicago (q.v.), whence the disorder extended to the Pacific coast, causing riot and bloodshed in many places. President Cleveland waited a reasonable time, as he conceived, for Governor Altgeld of Illinois to put an end to the disorder in that state. On the 6th of July 1894, despite Governor Altgeld’s protest, he directed the military forces of the United States to clear the way for trains carrying the mails. The rioters in and around Chicago were dispersed in a single day, and within a week the strike was broken.

Another important event was the action of the government as regards the question of arbitration between Great Britain and Venezuela (q.v.), in which Richard Olney, the secretary of state, played a somewhat aggressive part. On the 17th of December 1895 President Cleveland sent to Congress a special message calling attention to Great Britain’s action in regard to the disputed boundary line between British Guiana and Venezuela, and declaring the necessity of action by the United States to prevent an infringement of the Monroe Doctrine. Congress at once appropriated funds for an American commission to investigate the matter. The diplomatic situation became for the moment very acute, but after a short period of bellicose talk the common-sense of both countries prevailed. Negotiations with Great Britain ensued, and before the American special commission finished its work, Great Britain had agreed, November 1896, to arbitrate on terms which safeguarded the national dignity on both sides.

Cleveland’s independence was nowhere more strikingly shown during his second term than in his action in regard to the tariff legislation of his party in Congress. A tariff bill introduced in the House by William Lyne Wilson (1843–1900), of West Virginia, chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means, was so amended in the Senate, through the instrumentality of Senator Arthur Pue Gorman and a coterie of anti-administration democratic senators, that when the bill eventually came before him, although unwilling to veto it, the president signified his dissatisfaction with its too high rates by allowing it to become a law without his signature. Cleveland’s second administration began by vigorous action in regard to Hawaii; he at once withdrew from the Senate the annexation treaty which President Harrison had negotiated.

During his second term Cleveland added 44,004 places in the civil service to the classified list, bringing them within the rules of the merit system. This was a greater number than all that had been placed in the list before, and brought the whole number up to 86,932. Toward the end of his second term the president became very much out of accord with his party on the free-silver question, in consequence of which the endorsement of the administration was withheld by the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896. In the ensuing campaign the president and his cabinet, with the exception of Hoke Smith (b. 1855), secretary of the interior, who resigned, gave their support to Palmer and Buckner, the National, or “Sound Money” Democratic nominees.

Cleveland’s second term expired on the 4th of March 1897, and he then retired into private life, universally respected and constantly consulted, in the university town of Princeton, New Jersey, where he died on the 24th of June 1908. He was a trustee of Princeton University and Stafford Little lecturer on public affairs. Chosen in 1905 as a member of a committee of three to act as trustees of the majority of the stock of the Equitable Life Assurance Company, he promoted the reorganization and the mutualization of that company, and acted as rebate referee for it and for the Mutual and New York Life insurance companies. He published Presidential Problems (New York, 1904), made up in part of lectures at Princeton University, and Fishing and Hunting Sketches (1906).

A large amount of magazine literature has been devoted to President Cleveland’s career. W. O. Stoddard’s Grover Cleveland (1888; “Lives of the Presidents” series) and J. Lowry Whittle’s Grover Cleveland (1896; “Public Men of To-day” series) are judicious volumes; and “Campaign Biographies” (1884) were written by W. Dorsheimer, F. E. Goodrich, P. King and D. Welch. See articles by Woodrow Wilson (Atlantic Monthly, vol. 79; “Cleveland as President”); Carl Schurz (McClure’s Magazine, vol. ix.; “Second Administration of Grover Cleveland”); William Allen White (McClure’s, vol. 18, “Character Sketch of Cleveland”), and Henry L. Nelson (North American Review, vol. 188). Also Jesse L. Williams, Mr Cleveland: A Personal Impression (1909), and G. W. Parker, Recollections of Grover Cleveland (1909).  (H. Wh.) 

CLEVELAND, a city and port of entry in the state of Ohio, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Cuyahoga county, the sixth largest city in the United States. It is on Lake Erie at the mouth of Cuyahoga river, about 260 m. N.E. of Cincinnati, 357 m. E. of Chicago, and 623 m. W. by N. of New York. Pop. (1890) 261,353; (1900) 381,768, of whom 124,631 were foreign-born, 288,591 were of foreign parentage (i.e. having one or both parents foreign-born), and 5988 were negroes; (1910) 560,663. Of the 124,631, who in 1900 were foreign-born, Germans were greatly predominant (40,648, or 32.6%), with the Bohemians (13,599, or 10.9%) and Irish (13,120, or 10.6%) next in importance, the Bohemians being later comers than the Irish.

The city commands pleasant views from its position on a plateau, which, at places on bluffs along the shore, has elevations of about 75 ft. above the water below, and rises gradually toward the S.E. to 115 ft. and on the extreme E. border to more than 200 ft. above the lake, or about 800 ft. above sea-level; the surface has, however, been cut deeply by the Cuyahoga, which here pursues a meandering course through a valley about ½ m. wide, and is also broken by several smaller streams. The city’s shore-line is more than 12 m. long. The city varies considerably in width, and occupies a total area of about 41 sq. m., much the greater part of which is E. of the river. The streets are of unusual width (varying from 60 ft. to 132 ft.); are paved chiefly with Medina dressed stone, brick and asphalt; and, like the parks, are so well shaded by maples, elms and other trees, that Cleveland has become known as the “Forest City.” The municipality maintains an efficient forestry department. About ½ m. from the lake and the same distance E. of the river is the Public Square, or Monumental Park, in the business centre of the city. Thence the principal thoroughfares radiate. The river is spanned with bridges, and its valley by two viaducts, the larger of which (completed in 1878 at a cost of more than $2,000,000), 3211 ft. long, 64 ft. wide, and 68 ft. above water, connects Superior Avenue on the E. with Detroit Avenue on the W. The Central Viaduct, finished in 1888, extends from Central Avenue to W. 14th Street, and there connects with a smaller viaduct across Walworth Run, the combined length of the two being about 4000 ft. Another viaduct (about 830 ft. long) crosses Kingsbury Run a short distance above its mouth. Lower Euclid Avenue (the old country road to Euclid, O., and Erie, Pa.) is given up to commercial uses; the eastern part of the avenue has handsome houses with spacious and beautifully ornamented grounds, and is famous as one of the finest residence streets in the country. Sections of Prospect Avenue, E. 40th, E. 93rd, E. 75th, E. 55th, W. 44th and E. 79th streets also have many fine residences. The principal business thoroughfares are Superior Avenue (132 ft. wide), the W. part of Euclid Avenue, and Ontario St. The manufacturing quarters are chiefly in the valley of the Cuyahoga, and along the railway tracks entering the city, chiefly on the E. side. In 1902 the city arranged for grouping its public buildings—in the so-called “Group Plan”—at a cost of $25,000,000. The court-house and city hall are on the bluff overlooking Lake Erie; 1000 ft. south are the Federal post-office and the public library. The Mall connecting the court-house and city hall with the post-office and library is 600 ft. wide; on one side of it is the grand music-hall, on the other a fine art gallery. The six granite buildings forming this quadrangle were built under the supervision of Arnold Brunner, a government architect, and of John M. Carrere and D. H. Burnham,