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who planned the buildings at the Pan-American Exposition and the Chicago World’s Fair respectively. The city has, besides, numerous fine office buildings, including that of the Society for Savings (an institution in which each depositor is virtually a stockholder), the Citizens’, Rose, Williamson, Rockefeller, New England and Garfield buildings; and several beautiful churches, notably the Roman Catholic and Trinity cathedrals, the First Presbyterian (“Old Stone”), the Second Presbyterian, the First Methodist and Plymouth (Congregational) churches. The Arcade, between Euclid and Superior avenues, and the Colonial Arcade, between Euclid and Prospect avenues, are office and retail store buildings worthy of mention. The former, finished in 1889, is 400 ft. long, 180 ft. wide, and 140 ft. high, with a large interior court, overlooked by five balconies. The Colonial Arcade contains a hotel as well; it was finished in 1898. In the Public Square is a soldiers’ and sailors’ monument consisting of a granite shaft rising from a memorial room to a height of 125 ft., and surmounted with a figure of Liberty; in the same park, also, is a bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city. On a commanding site in Lake View Cemetery is the Garfield Memorial (finished in 1890) in the form of a tower (165 ft. high), designed by George Keller and built mostly of Ohio sandstone; in the base is a chapel containing a statue of Garfield and several panels on which are portrayed various scenes in his life; his remains are in the crypt below the statue. A marble statue of Commodore Oliver H. Perry, erected in commemoration of his victory on Lake Erie in 1813, is in Wade Park, where there is also a statue of Harvey Rice (1800–1891), who reformed the Ohio public school system and wrote Pioneers of the Western Reserve (1882) and Sketches of Western Life (1888).

The parks contain altogether more than 1500 acres. A chain of parks connected by driveways follows the picturesque valley of Doan Brook on the E. border of the city. At the mouth of the brook and on the lake front is the beautiful Gordon Park of 122 acres, formerly the private estate of William J. Gordon but given by him to the city in 1893; from this extends up the Doan Valley the large Rockefeller Park, which was given to the city in 1896 by John D. Rockefeller and others, and which extends to and adjoins Wade Park (85 acres; given by J. H. Wade) in which are a zoological garden and a lake. Lake View Park along the lake shore contains only 10½ acres, but is a much frequented resting-place near the business centre of the city, and affords pleasant views of the lake and its commerce. Monumental Park is divided into four sections (containing about 1 acre each) by Superior Avenue and Ontario Street. Of the several cemeteries, Lake View (about 300 acres), on an elevated site on the E. border, is by far the largest and most beautiful, its natural beauty having been enhanced by the landscape gardener. Besides Garfield, John Hay and Marcus A. Hanna are buried here.

Education.—Cleveland has an excellent public school system. A general state law enacted in 1904 placed the management of school affairs in the hands of an elective council of seven members, five chosen at large and two by districts. This board has power to appoint a school director and a superintendent of instruction. The superintendent appoints the teaching force, the director all other employés; appointments are subject to confirmation by the board, and all employés are subject to removal by the executive officials alone. The “Cleveland plan,” in force in the public schools, minimizes school routine, red tape and frequent examinations, puts great stress on domestic and manual training courses, and makes promotion in the grammar schools depend on the general knowledge and development of the pupil, as estimated by a teacher who is supposed to make a careful study of the individual. In 1909 there were 8 high schools and 90 grammar schools in the city; more than $2,500,000 is annually expended by Cleveland on its public schools. Besides the public school system there are many parochial schools; the University school, with an eight years’ course; the Western Reserve University, with its medical school (opened in 1843), the Franklin T. Backus Law School (1892), the dental department (1892), Adelbert College (until 1882 the Western Reserve College, founded in 1826, at Hudson, Ohio), the College for Women (1888), and the Library school (1904); St Ignatius College (Roman Catholic, conducted by the Fathers of the Society of Jesus; incorporated 1890), which has an excellent meteorological observatory; St Mary’s theological seminary (Roman Catholic); the Case School of Applied Science, founded in 1880 by Leonard Case (1820–1880), and opened in 1881; the Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons (founded in 1863; from 1869 until 1896 the medical department of the University of Wooster; since 1896 a part of Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio), the Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College, the Cleveland School of Pharmacy, the Cleveland Art School, and a school for the deaf, dumb and blind. In 1907–1908 Western Reserve University had 193 instructors and 914 students (277 in Adelbert College; 269 in College for Women; 20 in graduate department; and 102 in medical, 133 in law, 75 in dental and 51 in Library school); and the Case School of Applied Science 40 instructors and 440 students. The public library contained 330,000 volumes in 1908, the Case library (subscription) 65,000 volumes, the Hatch library of Adelbert College about 56,000 volumes, the library of the Western Reserve Historical Society 22,500 volumes, and the Cleveland law library, in the court house, 20,000 volumes.

The city has a highly developed system of charitable and corrective institutions. A farm of more than 1600 acres, the Cleveland Farm Colony, 11 m. from the city, takes the place of workhouses, and has many cottages in which live those of the city’s poor who were formerly classed as paupers and were sent to poorhouses, and who now apply their labour to the farm and are relieved from the stigma that generally attaches to inmates of poorhouses. On the “farm” the city maintains an “infirmary village,” a tuberculosis sanatorium, a detention hospital, a convalescent hospital and houses of correction. On a farm 22 m. from the city is the Boyville Home (maintained in connexion with the juvenile court) for “incorrigible” boys. The “cottage” plan has been adopted; each cottage is presided over by a man and wife whom the boys call father and mother. The boys have a government of their own, elect their officials from among themselves, and inflict such punishment on any of their number as the boys deem merited. Besides the city, there are the Northern Ohio (for the insane, founded in 1855), the Cleveland general. Lake Side (endowed), St Alexis and the Charity hospitals (the last managed by Sisters of Charity). The Goodrich House (1897), the Hiram House and the Alta House are among the best equipped and most efficient social settlements in the country. Cleveland has also its orphan asylums, homes for the aged, homes for incurables, and day nurseries, besides a home for sailors, homes for young working women, and retreats for unfortunate girls. The various charity and benevolent institutions are closely bound together on a co-operative basis by the agency of the associated charities.

The principal newspapers of the city are the Plain Dealer (1841, independent), the Press (1878, independent), the Leader (1847, Republican), and the News (1889, Republican). Bohemian, Hungarian and German dailies are published.

Municipal Enterprise.—Municipal ownership has been a greater issue in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907. The municipality owns the water-works, a small electric-light plant, the garbage plant and bath houses. The city water is pumped to reservoirs, through a tunnel 9 ft. in diameter 60 ft. below the bottom of the lake, from an intake situated a distance of 26,500 ft. from the shore. The system has a delivery capacity of 80,000,000 gallons daily. The department serves about 70,000 consumers. All water is metered and sells for 40 cents per thousand cub. ft., or 5 barrels for 1 cent. The municipal electric-lighting plant does not seriously compete with the private lighting company. The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 100 tons of garbage per day. The sale of the fertilizer more than pays for the cost of reduction, and the only expense the city has is in collecting it. In the city’s six bath houses the average number of baths per day,