The population of 1076 in 1830 increased to 6071 in 1840, to 17,034 in 1850, to 43,417 in 1860, to 92,829 in 1870 and to 160,146 in 1880. Until 1853 the city was confined to the E. side of the river, but in that year Ohio City, which was founded in 1807, later incorporated as the village of Brooklyn, and in 1836 chartered as a city (under the name Ohio City), was annexed. Other annexations followed: East Cleveland in 1872, Newburg in 1873, West Cleveland and Brooklyn in 1893, and Glenville and South Brooklyn in 1905. In recent history the most notable events not mentioned elsewhere in this article were the elaborate celebration of the centennial of the city in 1896 and the street railway strike of 1899, in which the workers attempted to force a redress of grievances and a recognition of their union. Mobs attacked the cars, and cars were blown up by dynamite. The strikers were beaten, but certain abuses were corrected. There was a less violent street car strike in 1908, after the assumption of control by the Municipal Traction Company, which refused to raise wages according to promises made (so the employees said) by the former owner of the railway; the strikers were unsuccessful.
Authorities.—Manual of the City Council (1879); Annuals of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce (1894–); E. M. Avery, Cleveland in a Nutshell: An Historical and Descriptive Ready-reference Book (Cleveland, 1893); James H. Kennedy, A History of the City of Cleveland (Cleveland, 1896); C. A. Urann, Centennial History of Cleveland (Cleveland, 1896); C. Whittlesey, The Early History of Cleveland (Cleveland, 1867); C. E. Bolton, A Few Civic Problems of Greater Cleveland (Cleveland, 1897); “Plan of School Administration,” by S. P. Orth, in vol. xix. Political Science Quarterly (New York, 1904); Charles Snavely, A History of the City Government of Cleveland (Baltimore, 1902); C. C. Williamson, The Finances of Cleveland (New York, 1907); “The Government of Cleveland, Ohio,” by Lincoln Steffens, in McClure’s Magazine, vol. xxv. (New York, 1905); and C. F. Thwing, “Cleveland, the Pleasant City,” in Powell’s Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901).
CLEVER, an adjective implying dexterous activity of mind or body, and ability to meet emergencies with readiness and adroitness. The etymology and the early history of the word are obscure. The earliest instance quoted by the New English Dictionary is in the Bestiary of c. 1200 (An Old English Miscellany, ed. R. Morris, 1872, E.E.T.S. 49)—“On the clothed the neddre (adder) is cof (quick) and the devel cliver on sinnes,” i.e. quick to seize hold of; this would connect the word with a M. Eng. “cliver” or “clivre,” a talon or claw (so H. Wedgwood, Dict. of Eng. Etym.). The ultimate original would be the root appearing in “claw,” “cleave,” “cling,” “clip,” &c., meaning to “stick to.” This original sense probably survives in the frequent use of the word for nimble, dexterous, quick and skilful in the use of the hands, and so it is often applied to a horse, “clever at his fences.” The word has also been connected with O. Eng. gléaw, wise, which became in M. Eng. gleu, and is cognate with Scottish gleg, quick of eye. As to the use of the word, Sir Thomas Browne mentions it among “words of no general reception in English but of common use in Norfolk or peculiar to the East Angle countries” (Tract. viii. in Wilkins’s ed. of Works, iv. 205). The earlier uses of the word seem to be confined to that of bodily dexterity. In this sense it took the place of a use of “deliver” as an adjective, meaning nimble, literally “free in action,” a use taken from Fr. delivre (Late Lat. deliberare, to set free), cf. Chaucer, Prologue to Cant. Tales, 84, “wonderly deliver and grete of strength,” and Romaunt of the Rose, 831, “Deliver, smert and of gret might.” It has been suggested that “clever” is a corruption of “deliver” in this sense, but this is not now accepted. The earliest use of the word for mental quickness and ability in the New English Dictionary is from Addison in No. 22 of The Freeholder (1716).
CLEVES (Ger. Cleve or Kleve), a town of Germany in the kingdom of Prussia, formerly the capital of the duchy of its own name, 46 m. N.W. of Düsseldorf, 12 m. E. of Nijmwegen, on the main Cologne-Amsterdam railway. Pop. (1900) 14,678. The town is neatly built in the Dutch style, lying on three small hills in a fertile district near the frontier of Holland, about 2 m. from the Rhine, with which it is connected by a canal (the Spoykanal). The old castle of Schwanenburg (formerly the residence of the dukes of Cleves), has a massive tower (Schwanenturm) 180 ft. high. With it is associated the legend of the “Knights of the Swan,” immortalized in Wagner’s Lohengrin. The building has been restored in modern times to serve as a court of justice and a prison. The collegiate church (Stiftskirche) dates from about 1340, and contains a number of fine ducal monuments. Another church is the Annexkirche, formerly a convent of the Minorites; this dates from the middle of the 15th century. The chief manufactures are boots and shoes, tobacco and machinery; there is also some trade in cattle. To the south and west of the city a large district is laid out as a park, where there is a statue to the memory of John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen (1604–1679), who governed Cleves from 1650 to 1679, and in the western part there are mineral wells with a pump room and bathing establishment. Owing to the beautiful woods which surround it and its medicinal waters Cleves has become a favourite summer resort.
The town was the seat of the counts of Cleves as early as the 11th century, but it did not receive municipal rights until 1242. The duchy of Cleves, which lay on both banks of the Rhine and had an area of about 850 sq. m., belonged before the year 1000 to a certain Rutger, whose family became extinct in 1368. It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1521. The Reformation was introduced here in 1533, but it was not accepted by all the inhabitants. The death without direct heirs of Duke John William in 1609 led to serious complications in which almost all the states of Europe were concerned; however, by the treaty of Xanten in 1614, Cleves passed to the elector of Brandenburg, being afterwards incorporated with the electorate by the great elector, Frederick William. The French held Cleves from 1757 to 1762 and in 1795 the part of the duchy on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France; the remaining portion suffered a similar fate in 1805. After the conclusion of peace in 1815 it was restored to Prussia, except some small portions which were given to the kingdom of Holland.
See Char, Geschichte des Herzogtums Kleve (Cleves, 1845); Velsen, Die Stadt Kleve (Cleves, 1846); R. Scholten, Die Stadt Kleve (Cleves, 1879–1881). For Anne of Cleves see that article.
CLEYNAERTS (Clenardus or Clénard), NICOLAS (1495–1542), Belgian grammarian and traveller, was born at Diest, in Brabant, on the 5th of December 1495. Educated at the university of Louvain, he became a professor of Latin, which he taught by a conversational method. He applied himself to the preparation of manuals of Greek and Hebrew grammar, in order to simplify the difficulties of learners. His Tabulae in grammaticen hebraeam (1529), Institutiones in linguam graecam (1530), and Meditationes graecanicae (1531) appeared at Louvain. The Institutiones and Meditationes passed through a number of editions, and had many commentators. He maintained a principle revived in modern teaching, that the learner should not be puzzled by elaborate rules until he has obtained a working acquaintance with the language. A desire to read the Koran led him to try to establish a connexion between Hebrew and Arabic. These studies resulted in a scheme for proselytism among the Arabs, based on study of the language, which should enable Europeans to combat the errors of Islam by peaceful methods. In prosecution of this object he travelled in 1532 to Spain, and after teaching Greek at Salamanca was summoned to the court of Portugal as tutor to Don Henry, brother of John III. He found another patron in Louis Mendoza, marquis of Mondexas, governor-general of Granada. There with the help of a Moorish slave he gained a knowledge of Arabic. He tried in vain to gain access to the Arabic MSS. in the possession of the Inquisition, and finally, in 1540, set out for Africa to seek information for himself. He reached Fez, then a flourishing seat of Arab learning, but after fifteen months of privation and suffering was obliged to return to Granada, and died in the autumn of 1542. He was buried in the Alhambra palace.
See his Latin letters to his friends in Belgium, Nicolai Clenardi, Peregrinationum ac de rebus machometicis epistolae elegantissimae (Louvain, 1550), and a more complete edition, Nic. Clenardi