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Epistolarum libri duo (Antwerp, 1561), from the house of Plantin; also Victor Chauvin and Alphonse Roersch, “Étude sur la vie et les travaux de Nicolas Clénard” in Mémoires couronnés (vol. lx., 1900–1901) of the Royal Academy of Belgium, which contains a vast amount of information on Cleynaerts and an extensive bibliography of his works, and of notices of him by earlier commentators.

CLICHTOVE, JOSSE VAN (d. 1543), Belgian theologian, received his education at Louvain and at Paris under Jacques Lefèbvre d’Etaples. He became librarian of the Sorbonne and tutor to the nephews of Jacques d’Amboise, bishop of Clermont and abbot of Cluny. In 1519 he was elected bishop of Tournai, and in 1521 was translated to the see of Chartres. He is best known as a distinguished antagonist of Martin Luther, against whom he wrote a good deal. When Cardinal Duprat convened his Synod of Paris in 1528 to discuss the new religion, Clichtove was summoned and was entrusted with the task of collecting and summarizing the objections to the Lutheran doctrine. This he did in his Compendium veritatum . . . contra erroneas Lutheranorum assertiones (Paris, 1529). He died at Chartres on the 22nd of September 1543.

CLICHY, or Clichy-la-Garenne, a town of northern France, in the department of Seine, on the right bank of the Seine, immediately north of the fortifications of Paris, of which it is a manufacturing suburb. Pop. (1906) 41,516. Its church was built in the 17th century under the direction of St Vincent de Paul, who had previously been curé of Clichy. Its industries include the manufacture of starch, rubber, oil and grease, glass, chemicals, soap, &c. Clichy, under the name of Clippiacum, was a residence of the Merovingian kings.

CLIFF-DWELLINGS, the general archaeological term for the habitations of primitive peoples, formed by utilizing niches or caves in high cliffs, with more or less excavation or with additions in the way of masonry. Two special sorts of cliff-dwelling are distinguished by archaeologists, (1) the cliff-house, which is actually built on levels in the cliff, and (2) the cavate house, which is dug out, by using natural recesses or openings. A great deal of attention has been given to the North American cliff-dwellings, particularly among the canyons of the south-west, in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado, some of which are still used by Indians. There has been considerable discussion as to their antiquity, but modern research finds no definite justification for assigning them to a distinct primitive race, or farther back than the ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians. The area in which they occur coincides with that in which other traces of the Pueblo tribes have been found. The niches which were utilized are often of considerable size, occurring in cliffs of a thousand feet high, and approached by rock steps or log-ladders.

See the article, with illustrations and bibliography, in the Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907).

CLIFFORD, the name of a famous English family and barony, taken from the village of Clifford in Herefordshire, although the family were mainly associated with the north of England.

Robert de Clifford (c. 1275–1314), a son of Roger de Clifford (d. 1282), inherited the estates of his grandfather, Roger de Clifford, in 1286; then he obtained through his mother part of the extensive land of the Viponts, and thus became one of the most powerful barons of his age. A prominent soldier during the reigns of Edward I. and Edward II., Clifford was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1299, won great renown at the siege of Carlaverock Castle in 1300, and after taking part in the movement against Edward II.’s favourite, Piers Gaveston, was killed at Bannockburn. His son Roger, the 2nd baron (1299–1322), shared in the rebellion of Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and was probably executed at York on the 23rd of March 1322. Robert’s grandson Roger, the 5th baron (1333–1389), and the latter’s son Thomas, the 6th baron (c. 1363–c. 1391), served the English kings on the Scottish borders and elsewhere. The same is true of Thomas, the 8th baron (1414–1455), who was killed at the first battle of St Albans in May 1455.

Thomas’s son John, the 9th baron (c. 1435–1461), was more famous. During the Wars of the Roses he fought for Henry VI., earning by his cruelties the name of the “butcher”; after the battle of Wakefield in 1460 he murdered Edmund, earl of Rutland, son of Richard, duke of York, exclaiming, according to the chronicler Edward Hall, “By God’s blood thy father slew mine; and so will I do thee and all thy kin.” Shakespeare refers to this incident in King Henry VI., and also represents Clifford as taking part in the murder of York. It is, however, practically certain that York was slain during the battle, and not afterwards like his son. Clifford was killed at Ferrybridge on the 28th of March 1461, and was afterwards attainted. His young son Henry, the 10th baron (c. 1454–1523), lived disguised as a shepherd for some years, hence he is sometimes called the “shepherd lord.” On the accession of Henry VII. the attainder was reversed and he received his father’s estates. He spent a large part of his time at Barden in Lancashire, being interested in astronomy and astrology. Occasionally, however, he visited London, and he fought at the battle of Flodden in 1513. This lord, who died on the 23rd of April 1523, is celebrated by Wordsworth in the poems “The white doe of Rylstone” and “Song at the feast of Brougham Castle.” Henry, the 11th baron, was created earl of Cumberland in 1525, and from this time until the extinction of the title in 1643 the main line of the Cliffords was associated with the earldom of Cumberland (q.v.).

Richard Clifford, bishop of Worcester and London under Henry IV. and Henry V., was probably a member of this family. This prelate, who was very active at the council of Constance, died on the 20th of August 1421.

On the death of George, 3rd earl of Cumberland, in 1605, the barony of Clifford, separated from the earldom, was claimed by his daughter Anne, countess of Dorset, Pembroke and Montgomery; and in 1628 a new barony of Clifford was created in favour of Henry, afterwards 5th and last earl of Cumberland. After Anne’s death in 1676 the claim to the older barony passed to her daughter Margaret (d. 1676), wife of John Tufton, 2nd earl of Thanet, and her descendants, whose title was definitely recognized in 1691. After the Tuftons the barony was held with intervening abeyances by the Southwells and the Russells, and to this latter family the present Lord De Clifford belongs.[1]

When the last earl of Cumberland died in 1643 the newer barony of Clifford passed to his daughter Elizabeth, wife of Richard Boyle, 2nd earl of Cork, and from the Boyles it passed to the Cavendishes, falling into abeyance on the death of William Cavendish, 6th duke of Devonshire, in 1858.

The barony of Clifford of Lanesborough was held by the Boyles from 1644 to 1753, and the Devonshire branch of the family still holds the barony of Clifford of Chudleigh, which was created in 1672.

See G. E. C(okayne), Complete Peerage (1887–1898); and T. D. Whitaker, History of Craven (1877).

CLIFFORD, JOHN (1836–  ), British Nonconformist minister and politician, son of a warp-machinist at Sawley, Derbyshire, was born on the 16th of October 1836. As a boy he worked in a lace factory, where he attracted the notice of the leaders of the Baptist community, who sent him to the academy at Leicester and the Baptist college at Nottingham to be educated for the ministry. In 1858 he was called to Praed Street chapel, Paddington (London), and while officiating there he attended University College and pursued his education by working at the British Museum. He matriculated at London University (1859), and took its B.A. degree (1861), B.Sc. (1862), M.A. (1864), and LL.B. (1866), and in 1883 he was given the honorary degree of D.D. by Bates College, U.S.A., being known therefrom as Dr Clifford. This degree, from an American college of minor academic status, afterwards led to sarcastic allusions, but Dr Clifford had not courted it, and his London University achievements were evidence enough of his intellectual equipment. At Praed Street chapel he gradually obtained a

  1. The original writ of summons (1299) was addressed in Latin, Roberto domino de Clifford, i.e. Robert, lord of Clifford, and subsequently the barons styled themselves indifferently Lords Clifford or de Clifford, until in 1777 the 11th lord definitively adopted the latter form. The “De” henceforth became part of the name, having quite lost its earliest significance, and with unconscious tautology the barony is commonly referred to as that of De Clifford.