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COLIMA—COLLAR

state, including iron, copper and lead, but mining enterprise has made no progress through lack of transportation facilities. Salt is made on the coast and shipped inland, and palm-leaf hats are manufactured and exported. Hides and deerskins are also exported in large quantities. A narrow-gauge railway has been in operation between the capital and Manzanillo for many years, and in 1907 a branch of the Mexican Central was completed between Guadalajara and the capital, and the narrow-gauge line to the coast was widened to the standard gauge. The chief cities of the state are the capital Colima, Manzanillo, Comala (the second largest town in the state), 5 m. from the capital, with which it is connected by an electric railway, Ixtlahuacan Coquimatlan and Almoloyan.


COLIMA, a city of Mexico and capital of a state of the same name, 570 m. (direct) W. by S. of Mexico City and about 36 m. inland from the Pacific coast. Pop. (1895) 18,977; (1900) 20,698. Colima is picturesquely situated on the Colima river, in a large fertile valley about 1650 ft. above the sea, and lies in the midst of fine mountain-scenery. About 30 m. to the north-east the volcano of Colima, in the state of Jalisco, rises to an elevation of 12,685 ft.; it is the most westerly of the active volcanoes of Mexico. Colima enjoys a moderately cool and healthy climate, especially in the dry season (November to June). The city is regularly laid out and is in great part well built, with good public buildings, several churches, a theatre, two hospitals, and a handsome market completed in 1905. Tramways connect the central plaza with the railway station, cemetery, and the suburb of Villa de Alvarez, 2½ m. distant, and an extension of 5 m. was projected in 1906 to Comala. The local industries include two old-fashioned cotton mills, an ice plant, corn-grinding mill, and five cigarette factories. Colima is the commercial centre for a large district, but trade has been greatly restricted by lack of transportation facilities. A railway connects with the port of Manzanillo, and the Mexican Central railway serves Colima itself. Colima was founded in 1522 by Gonzalo de Sandoval. It has not played a very prominent part in Mexican history because of its inaccessibility, and for the same reason has suffered less from revolutionary violence.


COLIN, ALEXANDRE (1526–1612), Flemish sculptor, was born at Malines. In 1563 he went, at the invitation of the emperor Ferdinand I., to Innsbruck, to work on the magnificent monument which was being erected to Maximilian I. in the nave of the Franciscan church. Of the twenty-four marble alti-rilievi, representing the emperor’s principal acts and victories, which adorn the sides of this tomb, twenty were executed by Colin, apparently in three years. The work displays a remarkable combination of liveliness and spirit with extreme care and finish, its delicacy rivalling that of a fine cameo. Thorwaldsen is said to have pronounced it the finest work of its kind. Colin, who was sculptor in ordinary both to the emperor and to his son, the archduke Ferdinand of Tirol, did a great deal of work for his patrons at Innsbruck and in its neighbourhood; particular mention may be made of the sepulchres of the archduke and his first wife, Philippine Welser, both in the same church as the Maximilian monument, and of Bishop Jean Nas. His tomb in the cemetery at Innsbruck bears a fine bas-relief executed by one of his sons.


COLL, an island of the Inner Hebrides, Argyllshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 432. It is situated about 7 m. west of Caliach Point in Mull, and measures 12 m. from N.E. to S.W., with a breadth varying from ¾ m. to 4 m. It is composed of gneiss, is generally rather flat, save in the west where Ben Hogh reaches a height of 339 ft., and has several lakes. The pasturage is good and the soil fairly fertile. Much dairy produce is exported, besides sheep and cattle. The antiquities include stone circles, duns, the ruins of Breachacha Castle, once a fortress of the Lords of the Isles. A steamer from Oban calls regularly at Arinagour.


COLLAERT, HANS, Flemish engraver, son of Adrian Collaert, a draughtsman and engraver of repute, was born at Antwerp about 1545. After working some years in his father’s studio, he went to Rome to perfect himself in his art. His engravings after Rubens are very highly esteemed. He left many works; among the best may be mentioned a “Life of Saint Francis,” 16 prints; a “Last Judgment,” folio; “Monilium, Bullarum, Inauriumque Artificiosissimae Icones,” 10 prints, 1581; “The Dead Christ in his Mother’s Lap”; “Marcus Curtius”; “Moses Striking the Rock,” and “The Resurrection of Lazarus,” after Lambert Lombard; “The Fathers of the Desert”; and “Biblia Sacra and the History of the Church,” after Rubens.


COLLAR, something worn or fastened round the neck (Lat. collare, from collum, neck), particularly a band of linen, lace or other material, which, under various shapes at different periods, has been worn by men and women to serve as a completion or finish to the neckband of a garment (see Costume); also a chain, worn as a personal ornament, a badge of livery, a symbol of office, or as part of the insignia of an order of knighthood, an application of the term with which the present article deals. The word is also applied to that part of the draught-harness of a horse which fits over the animal’s neck, to which the traces are attached, and against which the strain of the drawing of the vehicle is exercised, and to a circular piece of metal passed round the joints of a rod or pipe, to prevent movement or to make the joint steam- or water-tight.

Necklaces with beads and jewels threaded thereon or the plain laces with a hanging ornament are among the common braveries of all times and countries. From these come the collar and the neck-chain. Torques or twisted collars of metal are found in burying-places of the barbarous people of northern Europe. British chiefs wore them, and gold torques were around the necks of the leaders of the first of the Saxon invaders of Britain, among whose descendants, however, the fashion seems to have languished. Edward the Confessor was buried with a neck-chain of gold 2 ft. long, fastened with a jewelled locket and carrying an enamelled crucifix.

The extravagant age of Richard II. saw a great revival of the neck-chain, heavy links twisted of gold or silver. From this time onward neck chains, with or without pendant devices, were commonly worn by men and women of the richer sort. The men abandoned them in the time of Charles I.

Closely allied to the chain are the livery collars which appeared in the 14th century, worn by those who thus displayed their alliances or their fealty. Thus Charles V. of France in 1378 granted to his chamberlain Geoffrey de Belleville the right of bearing in all feasts and in all companies the collar of the Cosse de Geneste or Broomcod, a collar which was accepted and worn even by the English kings, Charles VI. sending such collars to Richard II. and to his three uncles. This French collar, a chain of couples of broom-cods linked by jewels, is seen in the contemporary portrait of Richard II. at Wilton. The like collar was worn by Henry IV. on the way to his crowning. During the sitting of the English parliament in 1394 the complaints of the earl of Arundel against Richard II. are recorded, one of his grievances being that the king was wont to wear the livery of the collar of the duke of Lancaster, his uncle, and that people of the king’s following wore the same livery. To which the king answered that soon after the return from Spain (in 1389) of his uncle, the said duke, he himself took the collar from his uncle’s neck, putting it on his own, which collar the king would wear and use for a sign of the good and whole-hearted love between them, even as he wore the liveries of his other uncles. Livery collars of the king of France, of Queen Anne and of the dukes of York and Lancaster are numbered with the royal plate and jewels which in the first year of Henry IV. had come to the king’s hands. The inventory shows that Queen Anne’s collar was made up of sprigs of rosemary garnished with pearls. The York collar had falcons and fetterlocks, and the Lancaster collar was doubtless that collar of Esses (or S S) used by the duke’s son, Henry of Bolingbroke, as an earl, duke and king. This famous livery collar, which has never passed out of use, takes many forms, its Esses being sometimes linked together chainwise, and sometimes, in early examples, bestowed as the ornamental bosses of a garter-shaped strap-collar. The oldest effigy bearing it is that in Spratton church of Sir John Swinford, who died in