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canvas bag secured by a special tripping noose which can be loosened when the bag has reached the ground. The concrete escapes from the bag, which is then drawn up and refilled.

Concrete may be compared with other building materials like masonry or timber from various points of view, such as strength, durability, convenience of building, fire-resistance, appearance and cost. Its strength varies Strength. within very wide limits according to the quality and proportions of the constituents, and the skill shown in mixing and placing them. To give a rough idea, however, it may be said that its safe crushing load would be about ½ cwt. per sq. in. for lime concrete, and 1 to 5 cwt. for Portland cement concrete. The safe tensile strength of Portland cement concrete would be something like one-tenth of its compressive strength, and might be far less. On this account it is usual to neglect the tensile strength of concrete in designing structures, and to arrange the material in such a way that tensile stresses are avoided. Hence slabs or beams of long span should not be built of plain concrete, though when reinforced with steel it is admirably adapted for these purposes.

In regard to durability good Portland cement concrete is one of the most durable materials known. Neither hot, cold, nor wet weather has practically any effect whatever upon it. Frost will not injure it after it has once set, though Durability. it is essential to guard it from frost during the operations of mixing and depositing. The same praise cannot, however, be given to lime concrete. Even though the best hydraulic lime be used it is wise to confine it to places where it is not exposed to the air, or to running water, and indeed for important structures the use of lime should be avoided. Good Portland cement is so much stronger than any lime that there are few situations where it is not cheaper as well as better to use the former, because, although cement is the more expensive matrix, a smaller proportion of it will suffice for use. Lime should never be used in work exposed to sea-water, or to water containing chemicals of any kind. Portland cement concrete, on the other hand, may be used without fear in sea-water, provided that certain reasonable precautions are taken. Considerable alarm was created about the year 1887 by the failure of two or three large structures of Portland cement concrete exposed to sea-water, both in England and other countries. The matter was carefully investigated, and it was found that the sulphate of magnesia in the sea-water has a decomposing action on Portland cements, especially those which contain a large proportion of lime or even of alumina. Indeed, no Portland cement is free from the liability to be decomposed by sea-water, and on a moderate scale this action is always going on more or less. But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous. If this is done there is really nothing to fear. On the other hand, if the concrete is rough and porous the sea-water will gradually eat into the heart of the structure, especially in a case like a dam, where the water, being higher on one side than the other, constantly forces its way through the rough material, and decomposes the Portland cement it contains.

As regards its convenience for building purposes it may be said roughly that in “mass” work concrete is vastly more convenient than any other material. But concrete is hampered by the fact that the surface always has to Convenience and appearance. be formed by means of wooden or other framing, and in the case of thin walls or floors this framing becomes a serious item, involving expense and delay. In appearance concrete can rarely if ever rival stone or brickwork. It is true that it can be moulded to any desired shape, but mouldings in concrete generally give the appearance of being unsatisfactory imitations of stone. Moreover, its colour is not pleasing. These defects will no doubt be overcome as concrete grows in popularity as a building material and its aesthetic treatment is better understood. Concrete pavings are being used in buildings of first importance, the aggregate being very carefully selected, and in many cases the whole mixture coloured by the use of pigments. Care must be taken in their selection, however, as certain colouring matters such as red lead are destructive to the cement. One of the great objections to the appearance of concrete is the fact that soon after its erection irregular cracks invariably appear on its surface. These cracks are probably due to shrinkage while setting, aggravated by changes in temperature. They occur no less in structures of masonry and brickwork, but in these cases they generally follow the joints, and are almost imperceptible. In the case of a smooth concrete face there are no joints to follow, and the cracks become an ugly feature. They are sometimes regulated by forming artificial “joints” in the structure by embedding strips of wood or sheet iron at regular intervals, thus forming “lines of weakness,” at which the cracks therefore take place. A pleasing “rough” appearance can be given to concrete by brushing it over soon after it has set with a stiff brush dipped in water or dilute acid. Or, if hard, its surface can be picked all over with a bush hammer.

At one time Portland cement concrete was considered to be lacking in fireproof qualities, but now it is regarded as one of the best fire-resisting materials known. Although experiments on this matter are badly needed, there is little Resistance to fire. doubt that good steel concrete is very nearly indestructible by fire. The matrix should be Portland cement, and the nature of the aggregate is important. Cinders have been and are still much favoured for this purpose. The reason for this preference lies in the fact that being porous and full of air, they are a good non-conductor. But they are weak, and modern experience goes to show that a strong concrete is the best, and that probably materials like broken clamp bricks or burnt clay, which are porous and yet strong, are far better than cinders as a fireproof aggregate. Limestone should be avoided, as it soon splits under heat. The steel reinforcement is of immense importance in fireproof work, because, if properly designed, it enables the concrete to hold together and do its work even when it has been cracked by fire and water. On the other hand, the concrete, being a non-conductor, preserves the steel from being softened and twisted by excessive temperature.

Only very general remarks can be made on the subject of cost, as this item varies greatly in different situations and with the market price of the materials used. But in England it may be said that for massive work such as big walls Cost. and foundations concrete is nearly always cheaper than brickwork or masonry. On the other hand, for reasons already given, thin walls, such as house walls, will cost more in concrete. Steel concrete is even more difficult to generalize about, as its use is comparatively new, but even in the matter of first cost it is proving a serious rival to timber and to plate steel work, in floors, bridges and tanks, and to brickwork and plain concrete in structures such as culverts and retaining walls, towers and domes.

Artificial Stones.—There are many varieties of concrete known as “artificial stones” which can now be bought ready moulded into the form of paving slabs, wall blocks and pipes: they are both pleasing in appearance and very durable, being carefully made by skilled workmen. Granolithic, globe granite and synthetic stone are examples of these. Some, such as victoria stone, imperial stone and others, are hardened and rendered non-porous after manufacture by immersion in a solution of silicate of soda. Others, like Ford’s silicate of limestone, are practically lime mortars of excellent quality, which can be carved and cut like a sandstone of fine quality.

Steel Concrete.—The introduction of steel concrete (also known as ferroconcrete, armoured concrete, or reinforced concrete) is generally attributed to Joseph Monier, a French gardener, who about the year 1868 was anxious to build some concrete water basins. In order to reduce the thickness of the walls and floor he conceived the idea of strengthening them by building in a network of iron rods. As a matter of fact other inventors were at work before Monier, but he deserves much credit for having pushed his invention with vigour, and for