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talks k. Kidney.

together by the systole of the conus. As development- goes on each of these ridges becomes segmented into a row of pocket valves with their openings directed-anteriorly so that regurgitation causes them to open out and occlude thelumen by their free edges meeting. Amongst the 'Teleostomesthe lower ganoids show a similar develo ment of A longitudinal' rows of valves in the conus. In Amia (g.26, B), however, 'the conus is shortened and the number of valves in each longitudinal row is much reduced. This leads to the condition found in the Teleosts (fig. 26, O), where practically all trace of the conus has disappeared, a single circle of valves representing a last survivor of each row (save ina few exceptional cases, e.g. ~Albnla, Tarpon, Oslebglossunz, where two valves of'tow are present)., t In front -of the conus vestige of the Teleost there is' present a thick walled bulbus aorlae differing from the conus in not being rhythrnically contractile, its walls being on the contrary richly

ov V provided with elastic tissue. The Dipnoans 1 show an im-V portant fadvange in the conus as in f atriu.rif'. aif§ .VeQtricle. The conus has af't:l§ .ra*cteristic spiral twist. - l, .au 1/'Withnft it, 'i1f Mf0reratodus are a 4 ' .number of longitudinal rows of J Q, ~ pocket valves. 0ne.of these rows is' marked out by the very large ] 'F e, [ size of its valves and by the fact /4 i"7:p'vthat they are not distinct from one {.u, . LQ another but even in the adult form a continuous, spirally-running, longitudinal fold. This ridge projecting into the lumen of the conus divides it incompletely into two channels, the one beginning (Le. at its hinder end) on the left side and ending in front ventrally, the other beginning on the right and ending dorsally. In Protoplérns a similar condition occurs, only in the front

After Newton Parkenirom Tram. of lhe Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxx. FIG. 27i"'€I1Dl1S System of Protopterus, as seen, from ventral side. Atrium. ac, Anterior cardinal. an.v, ' Anastomotic vein. 01 cy Intesting . end of the conus a second spiral av, Cauda1vein V fold is present opposite the first fu; Femoral vein. and, meeting this, completes the i., Gall-bladder. v, Hepatic vein. i.j.1/, Inferior jugular vein. i.v.c, Posterior vena cava. into the, formation of the spiral folds are here greatly reduced. These arrangements in the conus of the Dipnoans are of the highest morphological interest, pointing in an unmistakable way towards the condition found in the higher lung breathing vertebrates. Of the two cavities into which the conus is partially 'divided in the Dipneusti the one which begins posteriorly on the right receives the (venous) blood from the right side of the heart, and ending, up anteriorly dorsal to the other cavity communicates only with aortic arches V. and VI. In the higher vertebrates this cavity has become completely split off to form the root of the pulmonary arteries, and at result of aortic arch V. receiving its blood along with the functionally much more important VI. (the pulmonary arch) from this special part of the conus has been the almost complete disappearance of this arch (V.) in all the higher vertebrates. A Arterial System.-There are normally six aortic arches laid down corresponding with the visceral arches, the first (mandi- J. V, Boas, Morphol. Jam. vi. (Issey. division of the conus cavity into two separate parts. The rows of pocket valves which do not enter l, Liver. or1.v, Ovarian veins. p, Pericardium. p.c.v, Left posterior cardinal. p.'v', Parietal veins. r.p.z', Renal portal. 5, Stomach. s.b.v, Subclavian. bular) and second (hyoidean) undergoing atrophy to a less or greater extent in post-embryonic life. Where an external gill is present the aortic arch loops out into this, a kind of short circuiting of the blood-stream taking place as the external gill atrophies. As the walls of the clefts assume their respiratory function the aortic arch becomes broken into a network of capillaries in its respiratory portion, and there is now distinguished a ventral afferent and a dorsal efferent portion of each arch. Complicated developmental changes, into which it is unnecessary to enter,2 may lead to each efferent vessel draining the two sides of a single cleft instead of as it does primitively. In the Crossopterygians and Dipnoans as in the higher vertebrates the sixth aortic arch gives off the pulmonary artery to the lung. Among the Actinopterygians this, probably primitive, blood-supply to the lung (swim-bladder) persists only in Amia. Venous System.-The most interesting variations from the general plan outlined have to do with the arrangements of the posterior cardinals. In the Selachians these are in their anterior portion wide and sinus like, while in the region of the kidney they become broken into a sinusoidal network supplied by the post renal portion now known as the renal portal vein. In the Teleostomes the chief noteworthy feature is the tendency to asymmetry, the right posterior cardinal being frequently considerably larger than the left and connected with it by transverse anastomotic vessels, the result being that most of the blood from the two kidneys passes forwards by the right posterior cardinal. The Dipnoans (ig. 27) show a similar asymmetry, but here the anterior end of the right posterior cardinal disappears, being replaced functionally by a new the adjacent walls of two clefts I, .... '/., l.C, Vr ». i | 5 . L'. etc., v " G I, .P.v nm, n V Am ll FIG. 28.v°V€DOUS System of Polypterus 3o mrn. larvafdorsal view). a.c.~z/, Anterior cardinal vein. Ductus Cuvieri. Hepatic vein. Inferior jugular vein. Inter-renal vein. Lateral cutaneous vein. 12.6.2/, Posterior cardinal vein. Pronephros. d.C, hsv, z.;.z', Lr.v, l.v, PW. psv, .Pulmonary vein. 5, Subclavian vein. Sinus venosus. th, Thyroid. 21, Vein from pharyngeal wall. ”' Anterior portion of left posterior cardinal vein. r.'v, vessel which conveys the blood from the right posterior cardinal direct to the sinus venosus instead of to the outer end of the ductus* Cuvieri. This new vessel is the posterior vena cava which thus in the series of vertebrates appears for the first time in the Dipneusti. Pnlmonztry Veins.—In Polyptefus (fig. 28) the blood is drained from the lungs by a pulmonary vein on each side which unites in front with its fellow and opens into the great hepatic vein behind the heart. In the Dipnoans the conjoined pulmonary veins open directly into the left section of the atrium as in 'higher forms. In the Actinopterygians with their specialized air bladder the blood passes to the heart via posterior cardinals, or hepatic portal, or-a probably more primitive condition directly into the left ductus Cuvieri (Amie). Lymphallcs.-More or less irregular lymphatic spaces occur in the fishes as elsewhere and, as in the Amphibia, localized muscular developments are present forming lymph hearts.-Central N ervons System.—The neural tube shows in very early stages an anterior dilated portion which forms the rudiment of the brain in contradistinction to the hinder, narrower part which forms the spinal cord. This enlargement of the brain is correlated with the increasing predominance of the nerve h Cf(F. Hochstetter in O. Hertwig Handbuch der Entwickelungsle re.