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fibres connecting up the right and left sides of the tectum opticum (?). The habenular or superior commissure situated farther forwards connects the two ganglia habenulae. In the immediate neighbourhood of these ganglia there project upwards two diverticula of the brain-roof known as the pineal organ and the para pineal (or anterior parietal) organ. The special interest of these organs 1 lies in the fact that in certain vertebrates one (para pineal in S phenodon and in lizards) or both (Petromyzon) exhibit histological features which show that they must be looked on as visual organs or eyes. In gnathostomatous fishes they do not show any definite eye-like structure, but in certain cases (Polyodon, Callichthys, &c.) the bony plates of the skull-roof are discontinuous over the pineal organ forming a definite parietal foramen such as exists in lizards where the eye-like structure is distinct. It is also .usual to find in the epithelial wall of the pineal organ columnar cells which show club-shaped ends projecting into the lumen (exactly as in the young visual cells of the retina 2) and are prolonged into a root-like process at the other end. Definite nerve fibres pass down from these parietal organs to the brain. It is stated that the fibres from the pineal organ pass into the posterior commissure, those of the para pineal organ into the habenular commissure. The facts mentioned render it difficult to avoid the conclusion that these organs either have been sensory or are sensory. Possibly they represent the degenerate and altered vestiges of eye-like organs present in archaic vertebrates, or it may be that they represent the remains of organs not eye-like in function but which for some other reason lay close under the surface of the body. It would seem natural that a diverticulum of brain tissue exposed to the influence of light-rays should exhibit the same reaction as is shown frequently elsewhere in the animal kingdom and tend to assume secondarily the characters of a visual organ. The presence of the rod-like features in the epithelial cells is perhaps in favour of the latter view. In evolution we should expect these to appear before the camera-like structure of a highly developed eye, while in the process of degeneration we should expect these fine histological characters to go first.

Selachians.-No para pineal organ is present. The pineal body (except in Torpedo where it is absent) is in the form of a long slender tube ending in front in a dilated bulb lying near the front end of the brain in closing contact with, or enclosed in, a definite foramen in the cranial roof.

Holocephali and Crossopterygii.—Here also the pineal body is long and tubular: at its origin it passes dorsal wards or slightly backwards behind the large dorsal sac. .

Actinopterygian Ganoids resemble Selachians on the whole. In Amia a para pineal organ is present, and it is said to lie towards the left side and to be connected by a thick nerve with the left habenular ganglion (cf. Petromyzon, article CVCLOSTOMATA). This is adduced to support the view that the pineal and parapinealbodles represent originally paired structures.

Teleostei.-A para pineal rudiment appears in the embryo of some forms, but in the adult only the pineal organ is known to exist. This is usually short and club-shaped, its terminal part with much folded wall and glandular in character. In a few cases a parietal foramen occurs (Calliehthys, Loricaria, &c.).

Dipneusti.~'I'l1e pineal organ is short and simple. No parapmeal organ is developed.

The dorsal sac is formed by that part of the roof of the thalamencephalon lying between the habenular commissure and

the region of the velum. In some cases a longitudinal groove is present in which the pineal organ lies (Dipneusti). In the Crossopterygians the dorsal sac is particularly large and was formerly mistaken for the pineal organ.

The velum transvers um is a transverse, inwardly-projecting fold of the roof of the primitive fore-brain in front of the dorsal sac. To those morphologists who regard the hemisphere region or telencephalon as a primitively unpaired structure the velum is an important landmark indicating the posterior limit telencephalon. Those who hold the view taken in this 1

of the


Cf. F. K. Studnicka's excellent account of the parietal organs in A. Oppel's Lehrbuch vergl. mikr. Anatomic, T. v. (1905). "F. K. Studnicka, S.B. bohm. Gesell. (1901); ]. Graham Kerr, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sri. vol. xlvi., and The Budget! Memorzal Volume.

that the hemispheres are to be regarded as paired outpushings of the side wall of the primitive fore-brain attribute less morphological importance to the velu.m. Physiologically the velum is frequently important from the plexus of blood-vessels which passes with it into the III. ventricle.

In Petromyzou and Chimaera the velum is not developed. In Dipnoans there are present in its place paired transverse folds which are probably merely extensions backwards of the lateral plexuses.

The Paraphysis is a projection from the roof of the primitive fore-brain near its anterior end. It is well seen in Dipnoans 3 (Lepidosireu and Protapterus) where in the larva (exactly as in the urodele larva) it forms a blindly ending tube sloping upwards and forwards between the two hemispheres. In the adult it becomes mixed with the two lateral plexuses and is liable to be confused with them. In the other groups-except the Teleosts where it is small (Anguilla) or absent (most Teleosts)

  • the paraphysis is by no means such a definite structure, but

generally- there is present a more or less branched and divided diverticulum of the brain wall, frequently glandular, which is homologized with the paraphysis. The morphological significance of the paraphysis is uncertain. It may represent the remains of an ancient sense organ, or it may simply represent the last connexion between the brain and the external ectoderm from which it was derived.

An important derivative of the primitive fore-brain is seen in the pair of cerebral hemispheres which in the higher vertebrates become of such relatively gigantic dimensions. The hemispheres appear to be primitively associated with the special sense of smell, and they are prolonged anteriorly into a pair of olfactory lobes which come into close relation with the olfactory organ. From a consideration of their adult relations and of their development-particularly in those groups where there is no disturbing factor in the shape of a large yolk sacit seems probable that the hemispheres are primitively paired outpushings of the lateral wall of the primitive fore-brain 4in order to give increased space for the increased mass of nervous matter associated with the olfactory sense. They are most highly developed in the Dipneusti amongst fishes. They are there (cf. fig. zo, C) of relatively enormous size with thick nervous floor (corpus striatum) and side walls and roof (pallium) surrounding a central cavity (lateral ventricle) which opens into the third ventricle. At the posterior end of the hemisphere a small area of its wall remains thin and membranous, and this becomes pushed into the lateral ventricle by an ingrowth of blood-vessel to form the huge lateral plexus (=pZexus hemisphaerium). In this great size of the hemispheres 5 and also in the presence of a rudimentary cortex in the Dipnoi we see, as in many other features in these fishes, a distinct foreshadowing of conditions occurring in the higher groups of vertebrates. The Cyclostomes possess a distinct though small pair of hemispheres. In the Selachians the relatively archaic Notidauidaefl possess a pair of thick-walled hemispheres, but in the majority of the members of the group the paired condition is obscured (fig. 29, A). In the Teleostomes the mass of nervous matter which in other groups forms the hemispheres does not undergo any pushing outwards except as regards the small olfactory lobes. On the contrary, it remains as a great thickening of the lateral wall of the thalamencephalon (the so-called basal ganglia), additional space for which, however, may be obtained by a considerable increase in length of the fore-brain region (cf. fig. 30, A) or by actual involution into the third ventricle (P0lypterus).7 The great nervous thickenings of the thalamencephalic wall bulge into its cavity and are covered over by the thin epithelial roof of the thalamencephalon which is as a consequence liable to be confused with the pallium or roof of the hemispheres with which it has nothing to do: the homologue of the pallium 3 I. Graham Kerr, Quart. Jouru. Micr. Sci. vol. xlvi. 4F. K. Studnicka, S.B. bo/tm. Gesell. (1901); ]. Graham Kerr, Quart. fourn. Micf. Sci. vol. xlvi., and The Budgett Memorial Volume. 5 G. Elliot Smith, Anal. Aus. (1907).

° F. K. Studniéka, S.B. bohm. Gesell. (1896).

71. Graham Kerr. The Budgett Memorial Volume.