was the scission between East and West. The fury of the West against the iconoclastic emperors was such that the whole of Italy clamoured for war. It is true that Pope Stephen II. applied in 753 to Constantine V., one of the worst destroyers of images, for aid against the Lombards, for the emperor of Byzantium was still regarded as the natural champion of the church. But Constantine refused aid, and the pope turned to the Frankish King Pippin. The die was cast. ~ Henceforth Rome was linked with the Carolingian 'house in an alliance which culminated in the coronation of, Charlemagne by the pope on the 25th of December Soo.
In the crusading epoch the Cathars and Paulicians carried all over Europe the old iconoclastic spirit, and perhaps helped to transmit it to Wycliffe and Hus. Not the least racy clause in the document compiled about 1389 by the Wycliffites in defence of their defunct teacher is' the following: “Hit semes that this offrynge ymages is a sotile cast of Antichriste and his clerkis for to drawe almes fro pore men certis, these ymages of hemselfe may do nouther gode nor yvel to mennis soules, but thai myghtten warme a man's body in colde, if thai were sette upon a fire."
At .the period of the Reformation it was unanimously felt by the reforming party that, with the invocation of saints and the practice of reverenc-ing their relics, the adoration of images ought also to cease. The leaders of the movement were not, however, perfectly agreed on the question as to whether these might not in some, circumstances be retained in churches. Luther had no sympathy with the iconoclasticfoutbreaks which then occurred; he classed images in themselves as among the “ adiaphora, ” and condemned only their cultus; so also the “ Confessio Tetrapolitana ” leaves Christians free to have them or not, if only due regard be had to what is expedient and edifying. The “ Heidelberg Catechism, ” however, 'emphatically declares that images are not to be tolerated atall in churches.
SOURCES.-“ Acts of the Seventh Eeumenical'Council held in Nicaea, 787, " in Mansi's Concitia, vols. xii. and xi-ii.; “ Acts of the Iconoclast Council of 815, " in a treatise of Nicephorus discovered by M. Serruys and printed in the SéancesAcad. des Inscript. (May 1903); Theophanes, Chronographia, edit. cle Boor (Leipzig, 1883-1885); and Patr. Gr. vol. IO8. Also his “ Continuators ” in Patr. Gr. vol. 109; Nicephorus, Chronicon, edit. de Boor (Leipzig, 1880), and Patr. Gr. vol. loo; Georgius Monachus, Chroniccrn, edit. Muralt (Petersburg, 1859), and Patr. Gr. IIO; anonymous “ Life of Leo the Armenian” in Patr. Gr. 108; The Book of the Kings, by Joseph Genesios, Patr. Gr. 109; “ Life of S. Stephanus, junior, ” Patr. Gr. 100; “ St John of Damascus, ” three “ Sermones ” against the iconoclasts, Patr. Gr. 95; Niccphorus Patriarch, “'Antirrhetici, ” Pat1'.'GrL 100; Theodore Studita, “ Antirrhetici, " Patr. Gr.' 99. "For bibliography of contem orary hymns, letters, &c., bearing' on the controversy see K. idrumbachefs History of Byzantine Literature, <2nd ed. p. 674. Literature: Louis Brehier, La gueretle des images, and Les Origines du crucifix (Paris, 1904); -ibrairie Blond, in French, each volume 60 centimes (brief but admirable); Karl Schwartzlose, Der Bilderstreit (Gotha, 1890); Karl Schenk, “ The Emperor Leo IlI., " in Byzant. Zeitschrift (1896, German); Th. Uspenskij, Skizzen zur Geschichtq der byzantinischen Kultur (St Petersburg, 1892, Russian);Lombard, Etudes d'histoirc byzantine; Constantine V.(Paris, 1902, Biblioth. de t'university de Paris, xvi.); A.Tougard, La Persecution iconoctaste (Paris, 1897); and Rev. des questions historiiues (1891); Marin, Les Moines de Constantinople (Paris, 1897, k. iv. Les Moines et les empereurs iconoclast es); A lce Gardner, Theodore of Studium (London, 1905); Louis Maimbourg, Histoire de Fhérésie des iconoclartes (Paris, 1679“1683)§ ]. DaiIlé'(Dallaeus), De imaginibus (Leiden, 1642, and in French, Geneva, 1641); Spanheim, Historia irnaginurn (Leiden, 1686). See also the account of this e och in the Histories of Neander, Gibbon and Milman; Aug. Ffin Gfrorer, “ Der Bildersturm” in Byzantinische Geschichte 2 (1873); C. j. von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte 3 (1877), 366 ff. (also in English translation; Karl Krumbacher. Rfvzant. Literaturgeschichte (2nd ed. p. 1090). (F. C. C.)
ICONOSTASIS, the screen in a Greek church which divides the altar and sanctuary from the rest of the church. It is generally attached to the first eastern pier or column and rises to the level of the springing of the vault. The iconostasis or image bearer has generally three doors, one on each side of the central door, beyond which is the principal aitar. The screen is subdivided into four or five tiers, each tier decorated with a series of panels containing representations of the saints: of these only the heads, hands and feet are painted, the bodies being covered with embossed metal work, richly gilded. There is a fine example in the Russo-Greek chapel, Welbeck Street, London, which was rebuilt in 1864-1865.
ICOSAHEDRON (Gr. ei/coat, twenty, and %'6pa, a face or base), in geometry, a solid enclosed by twenty faces. The “regular icosahedron ” is one of the Platonic solids; the “great icosahedron ” is a Kepler-Poinsot solid; and the “truncated icosahedron ” is an Archimedean solid (see POLYHEDRON). In crystallography the icosahedron is a possible form, but it has not been observed; it is closely simulated by a combination of the octahedron and pentagonal dodecahedron, which has twenty triangular faces, but only eight are equilateral, the remaining twelve being isosceles (see CRYSTALLOGRAPHY).
ICTERUS, a bird so called by classical authors, and supposed by Pliny to be the same as the Galgutus, which is generally identified with the golden oriole (Oriotus galbula).1 It signified a bird in the plumage of which yellow or green predominated, and hence Brisson did not take an unhappy liberty when he applied it in a scientific sense' to some birds of the New World of which the same could be said. These are now held to constitute a distinct family, I cteridae, intermediate it would seem between the BUNr1Nos (q.v.) and STARLINGS (q.v.); and, while many of them are called troopials (the English equivalent of the French Troupiales, first used by Brisson), others are known as the American GRACKLES (q.v.). The typical species of I uterus is the Oriolus icterus of Linnaeus, the I cterus 'vulgaris of Daudin and modern ornithologists, an inhabitant of northern Brazil, Guiana, Venezuela, occasionally visiting some of the Antilles and of the United States. Thirty-three species of the genus Ioterus alone, and more than seventy others belonging to' upwards of a score of genera, are recognized by Sclater and Salvin (Nornenclator, pp. 35- 39) as belonging to the Neotropical Region, though a few of them emigrate to the northward in summer. Cassicus and Ostinops may perhaps be named as the most remarkable. They are nearly all gregarious birds, many of them with loud and in most cases, Where they have been observed, with melodious notes, rendering them favourites in captivity, for they readily learn to whistle simple tunes. Some have a plumage wholly black, others are richly clad, as is the well-known Baltimore oriole, golden robin or hangnest of the United States, Icterus Baltimore, whose brightly contrasted black and orange have conferred upon' it the name it most commonly bears in North America, those colours being, says Catesby (Birds of Carolina, i. 48), the tinctures of the armorial bearings of the Calverts, Lords Baltimore, the original grantees of Maryland, but probably more correctly those of their liveries. The most divergent form of Icteridae seems to be that known in the United States as the meadow-lark, Sturnella magna or S. ludovioiana, a bird which in aspect and habits has considerable resemblance to the larks of the Old World, Ataudidae, to which, however, it has no near affinity, while Doticlionyx oryzivorus, the bobolink or rice-bird, with its very bunting-like bill, is not much less aberrant. (A. N .)
ICTINUS, the architect of the Parthenon at Athens, of the Hall of the Mysteries at Eleusis, and of the temple of Apollo at Bassae, near Phigalia. 'He was thus active about 450-430 B.C. We know little else about him; but the remains of his two great temples testify to his wonderful mastery of the principles of Greek architecture.
IDA (d. 559), king of Bernicia, became king in 547, soon after the foundation of the kingdom of Bernicia by the Angles.-t He built the fortress of Bebbanburh, »the modern Bamborough, and after his death his kingdom, which did not extend south of the Tees, passed in turn to six of his sons. The surname of
1 The number of names by which this species was known in ancient times-Chloris or Chlorion, Galbuta (akin to Galgulus), Parra and Vireo-may be explained by its being a common and conspicuous bird, as well as one which varied in plumage according to age and sex (see ORIOLE). Owing to its general colour, Chloris was in time transferred to the GREENFINCH (g.v.), while the names Galbula. Parra and Vireo have since been utilized by ornithologists (see
QIACAMAR and JACANA).