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as Newton Hall, in the part of the town so called. The old family of Hyde held possession of the manor as early as the reign of John. The borough, incorporated in 1881, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 3081 acres.

HYDE DE NEUVILLE, JEAN GUILLAUME, Baron (1776–1857), French politician, was born at La Charité-sur-Loire (Nièvre) on the 24th of January 1776, the son of Guillaume Hyde, who belonged to an English family which had emigrated with the Stuarts after the rebellion of 1745. He was only seventeen when he successfully defended a man denounced by Fouché before the revolutionary tribunal of Nevers. From 1793 onwards he was an active agent of the exiled princes; he took part in the Royalist rising in Berry in 1796, and after the coup d’état of the 18th Brumaire (November 9, 1799) tried to persuade Bonaparte to recall the Bourbons. An accusation of complicity in the infernal machine conspiracy of 1800–1801 was speedily retracted, but Hyde de Neuville retired to the United States, only to return after the Restoration. He was sent by Louis XVIII. to London to endeavour to persuade the British government to transfer Napoleon to a remoter and safer place of exile than the isle of Elba, but the negotiations were cut short by the emperor’s return to France in March 1815. In January 1816 de Neuville became French ambassador at Washington, where he negotiated a commercial treaty. On his return in 1821 he declined the Constantinople embassy, and in November 1822 was elected deputy for Cosne. Shortly afterwards he was appointed French ambassador at Lisbon, where his efforts to oust British influence culminated, in connexion with the coup d’état of Dom Miguel (April 30, 1824), in his suggestion to the Portuguese minister to invite the armed intervention of Great Britain. It was assumed that this would be refused, in view of the loudly proclaimed British principle of non-intervention, and that France would then be in a position to undertake a duty that Great Britain had declined. The scheme broke down, however, owing to the attitude of the reactionary party in the government of Paris, which disapproved of the Portuguese constitution. This destroyed his influence at Lisbon, and he returned to Paris to take his seat in the Chamber of Deputies. In spite of his pronounced Royalism, he now showed Liberal tendencies, opposed the policy of Villèle’s cabinet, and in 1828 became a member of the moderate administration of Martignac as minister of marine. In this capacity he showed active sympathy with the cause of Greek independence. During the Polignac ministry (1829–1830) he was again in opposition, being a firm upholder of the charter; but after the revolution of July 1830 he entered an all but solitary protest against the exclusion of the legitimate line of the Bourbons from the throne, and resigned his seat. He died in Paris on the 28th of May 1857.

His Mémoires et souvenirs (3 vols., 1888), compiled from his notes by his nieces, the vicomtesse de Bardonnet and the baronne Laurenceau, are of great interest for the Revolution and the Restoration.

HYDE PARK, a small township of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about 8 m. S.W. of the business centre of Boston. Pop. (1890) 10,193; (1900) 13,244, of whom 3805 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 15,507. Its area is about 41/2 sq. m. It is traversed by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, which has large repair shops here, and by the Neponset river and smaller streams. The township contains the villages of Hyde Park, Readville (in which there is the famous “Weil” trotting-track), Fairmount, Hazelwood and Clarendon Hills. Until about 1856 Hyde Park was a farmstead. The value of the total factory product increased from $4,383,959 in 1900 to $6,739,307 in 1905, or 53.7%. In 1868 Hyde Park was incorporated as a township, being formed of territory taken from Dorchester, Dedham and Milton.

HYDERABAD, or Haidarabad, a city and district of British India, in the Sind province of Bombay. The city stands on a hill about 3 m. from the left bank of the Indus, and had a population in 1901 of 69,378. Upon the site of the present fort is supposed to have stood the ancient town of Nerankot, which in the 8th century submitted to Mahommed bin Kasim. In 1768 the present city was founded by Ghulam Shah Kalhora; and it remained the capital of Sind until 1843, when, after the battle of Meeanee, it was surrendered to the British, and the capital transferred to Karachi. The city is built on the most northerly hills of the Ganga range, a site of great natural strength. In the fort, which covers an area of 36 acres, is the arsenal of the province, transferred thither from Karachi in 1861, and the palaces of the ex-mirs of Sind. An excellent water supply is derived from the Indus. In addition to manufactures of silk, gold and silver embroidery, lacquered ware and pottery, there are three factories for ginning cotton. There are three high schools, training colleges for masters and mistresses, a medical school, an agricultural school for village officials, and a technical school. The city suffered from plague in 1896–1897.

The District of Hyderabad has an area of 8291 sq. m., with a population in 1901 of 989,030, showing an increase of 15% in the decade. It consists of a vast alluvial plain, on the left bank of the Indus, 216 m. long and 48 broad. Fertile along the course of the river, it degenerates towards the east into sandy wastes, sparsely populated, and defying cultivation. The monotony is relieved by the fringe of forest which marks the course of the river, and by the avenues of trees that line the irrigation channels branching eastward from this stream. The south of the district has a special feature in its large natural water-courses (called dhoras) and basin-like shallows (chhaus), which retain the rains for a long time. A limestone range called the Ganga and the pleasant frequency of garden lands break the monotonous landscape. The principal crops are millets, rice, oil-seeds, cotton and wheat, which are dependent on irrigation, mostly from government canals. There is a special manufacture at Hala of glazed pottery and striped cotton cloth. Three railways traverse the district: (1) one of the main lines of the North-Western system, following the Indus valley and crossing the river near Hyderabad; (2) a broad-gauge branch running south to Badin, which will ultimately be extended to Bombay; and (3) a metre-gauge line from Hyderabad city into Rajputana.

HYDERABAD, Haidarabad, also known as the Nizam’s Dominions, the principal native state of India in extent, population and political importance; area, 82,698 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 11,141,142, showing a decrease of 3.4% in the decade; estimated revenue 41/2 crores of Hyderabad rupees (£2,500,000). The state occupies a large portion of the eastern plateau of the Deccan. It is bounded on the north and north-east by Berar, on the south and south-east by Madras, and on the west by Bombay. The country presents much variety of surface and feature; but it may be broadly divided into two tracts, distinguished from one another geologically and ethnically, which are locally known from the languages spoken as Telingana and Marathwara. In some parts it is mountainous, wooded and picturesque, in others flat and undulating. The open country includes lands of all descriptions, including many rich and fertile plains, much good land not yet brought under cultivation, and numerous tracts too sterile ever to be cultivated. In the north-west the geological formations are volcanic, consisting principally of trap, but in some parts of basalt; in the middle, southern and south-western parts the country is overlaid with gneissic formations. The territory is well watered, rivers being numerous, and tanks or artificial pieces of water abundant, especially in Telingana. The principal rivers are the Godavari, with its tributaries the Dudna, Manjira and Pranhita; the Wardha, with its tributary the Penganga; and the Kistna, with its tributary the Tungabhadra. The climate may be considered in general good; and as there are no arid bare deserts, hot winds are little felt.

More than half the revenue of the state is derived from the land, and the development of the country by irrigation and railways has caused considerable expansion in this revenue, though the rate of increase in the decade 1891–1901 was retarded by a succession of unfavourable seasons. The soil is generally fertile, though in some parts it consists of chilka, a red and gritty mould little fitted for purposes of agriculture. The principal crops are millets of various kinds, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, cotton,