Open main menu
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

Stock. Area. Earliest Home. Tribes, &c. Population.
1. Algonkian. Most of N. and E. North America, between lat. 35° and 55°; centred in the region of the Great Lakes and Hudson's Bay. N. of the St Lawrence and E. of Lake Ontario (Brinton); N.W. of the Great Lakes (Thomas). Some 50-60, with many minor groups. About 90,000, of which some 50,000 in Canada.
2. Arawakan. Within the territory of the Calusas in S.W. Florida. Central South America. Small colony from Cuba. Extinct about end of 16th century.
3. Atakapan. In part of S.W. Louisiana and N.E. Texas. Somewhere in E. or N.E. Texas. 2. Practically extinct; in 1885 4 individuals living in Louisiana, and 5 in Texas.
4. Athabaskan. Interior of Alaska and Canada; W. of Hudson's Bay and N. of the Algonkian; also represented in Oregon, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico. Interior of Alaska or N.W. Canada. Some 50, with numerous minor groups. About 54,000, of which some 20,000 in Canada.
5. Beothukan. Newfoundland. Some part of Newfoundland or Labrador. Local settlements only. Extinct; last representative died in 1829.
6. Caddoan. Country between the Arkansas and Colorado rivers in Louisiana, Texas, &c., particularly on the Red River and its affluents; later also in Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, and Oklahoma. On the lower Red River, or, perhaps, somewhere to the S.W. Some 12-15. About 2000.
7. Chemakuan. On the N.W. shore of Puget Sound, Washington; also on Pacific coast, near Cape Flattery. Some part of N.W. Washington. 2. About 200.
8. Chimarikan. In N. California, on Trinity river, N.W. of the Copehan. Somewhere in N. California. 1. Practically extinct; in 1903 only 9 individuals reported living.
9. Chinookan. On the lower Columbia river, from the Cascades to the Pacific Ocean; on the coast, N. to Shoalwater Bay and S. to Tillamook Head,in Washington and Oregon. N. of the Columbia, in W. Washington. Some 10 or 12 with numerous villages. About 300.
10. Chitimachan. Part of S.E. Louisiana. Region of Grand Lake and river, Louisiana. 1. Nearly extinct; in 1881 only 50 individuals surviving.
11. Chumashan. In S.W. California, S. of the Salinan and Mariposan; in the basins of the Sta Maria, Sta Inez, lower Sta Clara, &c., on the coast, and the northern Sta. Barbara Islands. Somewhere in S.W. California. 7 or more dialects, with many small settlements. Nearly extinct; only 15-20 individuals still living.
12. Copehan (Wintun). In central N. California, W. of the Pujunan; W. of the Coast range, from San Pablo and Suisun Bays N. to Mount Shasta. Somewhere in N. California. 2 chief divisions, with many small settlements. About 130 at various villages, and as many on Round Valley Reservation.
13. Costanoan. In the coast region of central California, N. of the Salinan; from about San Francisco S. to Point Sur and Big Panoche Creek, and from the Pacific Ocean to the San Joaquin river. Somewhere in central California. No true tribes, but 15-20 settlements. Nearly extinct; only 25 or 30 individuals still living.
14. Eskimoan. Greenland and some of the Arctic islands, the whole northern coast N. of the Alonkian and Athabaskan, from the straits of Belle Isle to the end of the Aleutian Islands; also in extreme N.E. Asia W. to the Anadyr river; in E. North America in earlier times possibly considerably farther south. Interior of Alaska (Rink); in the region W. of Hudson's Bay (Boas); preferably the latter. 9 well-marked groups, with 60-70 “settlements,” &c. About 28,000, of which there are in Greenland 11,000 Alaska 13,000, Canada 4500, and Asia 1200.
15. Esselenian. On the coast of W. California, S. of Monterey, N. of the Salinan. Somewhere in W. or central California. Many small settlements. Extinct; last speaker of language died about 1890.
16. Haidan (Skittagetan). The Queen Charlotte Islands, off the N.W. coast of British Columbia, and part of the Prince of Wales Archipelago, Alaska. Interior of Alaska or N.W. Canada. 2 dialects; about 25 chief “towns,” and many minor settlements. About 900, of which 300 are in Alaska.
17. Iroquoian. The region about Lakes Erie and Ontario (Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, &c.),and on both banks of the St Lawrence, on the N. to beyond the Saguenay, on the S. to Gaspé; also represented in the S.E. United States by the Tuscarora, Cherokee, &c. (now chiefly in Oklahoma). Somewhere between the lower St Lawrence and Hubson's Bay (Brinton, Hale); in S. Ohio and Kentucky (Boyle, Thomas). Some 15 chief tribes with many minor subdivisions. About 40,000, of which 10,000 are in Canada; of those in the United States 28,000 are Cherokee.
18. Kalapuyan. In N.W. Oregon, in the valley of the Willamette, above the Falls. Somewhere in N.W. Oregon. About 15-18, with minor divisions. Only some 140 individuals still living.
19. Karankawan. On the Texas coast, from Galveston to Padre Island. Somewhere in S. Texas. 5-6, with minor divisions. Extinct probably in 1858; a few survived later, possibly, in Mexico.
20. Keresan. In N. central New Mexico, on the Rio Grande and its tributaries the Jemez, San José, &c. Somewhere in the New Mexico-Arizona region. 17 “villages” (pueblos); earlier more. 3990, in 6 pueblos (some 150 at Isleta).
21. Kiowan. On the upper Arkansas and Canadian rivers, in Colorado Kansas, Oklahoma, &c.; formerly on the head-waters of the Platte, and still earlier on the upper Yellowstone and Missouri, in S.W. Montana. At the foot of the Rocky Mountains in S. W. Montana. 1. 1219 in Oklahoma.
22. Kitunahan. In S.E. British Columbia, N. Idaho, and part of N.W. Montana. Somewhere E. of the Rocky Mountains in Montana or Alberta. 2 chief divisions and 3 others. About 1100; half in Canada and half in the United States.
23. Koluschan (Tlingit). On the coast and adjacent islands of S. Alaska, from 55° to 60° N. lat.; also some in Canada. Somewhere in the interior of Alaska or N. W. Canada. Some 12-15. About 2000.
24. Kulanapan (Pomo). On the coast in N.W. California (Sonoma, Lake and Mendocino counties), W. of the Yukian. Somewhere in N.W. California. About 30 local divisions, &c.; no true tribes. About 1000.
25. Kusan. On the coast of central Oregon, on Coos Bay and Coos and Coquille rivers, S. of the Yakonan; now mostly on Siletz Reservation. Somewhere inland from Coos Bay, Oregon. 4, earlier more. About 50.