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LINGUISTIC STOCKS]
455
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN
Stock. Area. Earliest Home. Tribes, &c. Population.
26. Lutuamian (Klamath). In the region of the Klamath and Tule lakes, Lost and Sprague rivers, &c., in Oregon (chiefly) and N.E. California; now on Klamath Reservation, Oregon, with a few also in Oklahoma. In S. Oregon, N. of the Klamath lakes. 2, with local subdivisions. 1034; of these 755 Klamath, and 279 Modoc (56 in Oklahoma).
27. Mariposan (Yokuts). In S. central California, in the valley of the San Joaquin, on the Tule, Kaweah, King's rivers,&c.; E. of the Salinan, S. of the Moquelumnan. Somewhere in central California. 30-40 groups with special dialects. About 150, at Tule river reservation, &c.
28. Moquelumnan (Miwok). In central California, in three sections: the main area on the W. slope of the Sierras, from the Cosumnes river on the N. to the Fresno on the S.; a second on the N. shore of San Francisco Bay, and a third (small) S. of Clear Lake on the head-waters of Putah Creek. Somewhere in central California. 7 dialects, no true tribes; about 20 local groups with numerous minor ones. Several hundred; much scattered.
29. Muskogian (Muskhogean). In the Gulf States, E. of the Mississippi, most of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia, part of Tennessee, S. Carolina, Florida and Louisiana; now mostly in Oklahoma. Somewhere W. of the lower Mississippi. About 12, with many minor divisions. About 40,000; of these 38,000 in Oklahoma, 1000 in Mississippi, 350 in Florida, and a few in Louisiana.
30. Pakawan (Coahuiltecan). On both banks of the Rio Grande in Texas and Mexico, from its mouth to beyond Laredo; at one time possibly E. to Antonio, and W. to the Sierra Madre. Some part of N.E. Mexico. 20-25, some very small. Practically extinct; in 1886 about 30 individuals still living, mostly on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande.
31. Pujunan (Maidu). In N.E. California, E. of the Sacramento river, between the Shastan and Moquelumnun. N.E. California. No true tribes; several larger and very many smaller local divisions, “villages,” &c. About 250 full-bloods.
32. Quoratean (Karok). In extreme N.W. California, on the Klamath river, &c.; W. of the Shastan. Somewhere in N. California. Many “villages,” &c. In 1889 some 600; much reduced since; possibly 300.
33. Sahaptian. In the region of the Columbia and its tributaries, in parts of Washington, Idaho and Oregon; between lat. 44° and 47°, and from the Cascades to the Bitter Root Mountains. Somewhere in the region of the Columbia, or farther N. 5-7. About 4200.
34. Salinan. On the Pacific coast of S.W. California, from above S. Antonio, to below S. Louis Obispo; W. of the Mariposan. Somewhere in S. W. California. 2 or 3 larger divisions; no true tribes. Practically extinct; in 1884 only 10-12 individuals living.
35. Salishan. A large part of S. British Columbia and Washington, with parts of Idaho and Montana; also part of Vancouver Island, and outliers in N. British Columbia (Bilqula), and S.W. Oregon. Central or N. British Columbia. Some 60-65, of which a number are merely local divisions. About 15,000 in Canada, and some 6300 in the United States.
36. Shastan. In N. California and S. Oregon, in the basins of the Pit and Klamath rivers, on Rogue river and to beyond the Siskiyou Mountains; S. of the Lutuamian. In N. California or Oregon. 6 or more linguistic divisions. Less than 40 Shasta full-bloods; some 1200 Achomawi.
37. Shoshonian. In the W. part of the United States; most of the country between lat. 35° and 45° and long. 105° and 120°, with extensions N., S., and S.E. outside this area; represented also in California, and in Mexico by the Piman, Sonoran and Nahuatlan tribes. Foot-hills and plains E. of the Rocky Mountains in N.W. United States or Canada, but residence in Plateau region long-continued. Some 12-15 in the United States; many more in Mexico, ancient and modern. In the United States, some 24,000.
38. Siouan. In the basin of the Missouri and the upper Mississippi; from about N. lat. 33° to 53° and, at the broadest, from 89° to 110° W. long.; also represented in Wisconsin (Winnebago), Louisiana, the Carolinas, and Virginia (formerly). In the Carolina-Virginia region. Some 20 large and many minor ones. About 38,000; of which some 1400 in Canada.
39. Takelman. In S.W. Oregon, in the middle valley of Rogue river, on the upper Rogue, and to about the California line or beyond. In some part of S. Oregon. 2. Practically extinct; perhaps 6 speakers of the language alive.
40. Tanoan. In New Mexico, on the Rio Grande, &c., from lat. 33° to 36°; also a settlement with the Moqui in N.E. Arizona, and another on the Rio Grande at the boundary line, partly in Mexico. Some part of New Mexico. Some 14-15 pueblos. About 4200 in 12 pueblos.
41. Timuquan. In Florida, from the N. border and the Ocilla river to Lake Okeechobee, perhaps farther N. and S. Some part of Florida. Some 60 or more settlements. Extinct in 18th century.
42. Tonikan. In part of E. Louisiana and part of Mississippi; in Avoyelles parish, La., &c. Somewhere in the Louisiana-Mississippi region. 3. Practically extinct; in 1886 some 25 individuals living at Marksville, La.
43. Tonkawan. In S.E. Texas, N.W. of the Karankawan; remnants now in Oklahoma. Somewhere in S. or W. Texas. 1. Nearly extinct; in 1884 only 78 individuals living; in 1905 but 47, with Ponkas in Oklahoma.
44. Tsimshian (Chimmesyan). In N.W. British Columbia, on the Nass and Skeena rivers, and the adjacent islands and coast S. to Millbank Sound also (since 1887) on Annette Island Alaska. On the head-waters of the Skeena river. 3 main and several minor divisions. About 3200 in Canada, and 950 in Alaska.
45. Wailatpuan. A western section (Molala) in the Cascade region between Mounts Hood and Scott, ihn Washington and Oregon; an eastern (Cayuse) on the head-waters of the Wallawalla. Umatilla and Grande Ronde rivers. In Oregon, S. of the Columbia river. 2. Language practically extinct; 405 Cayuse (in 1888 only 6 spoke their mother tongue) are still living; in 1881 about 20 Molalas.