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TRIBES]
459
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN
Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of
Intermixture.
Condition, Progress, &c. Authorities.
Abnaki. Algonkian. At Becancour, Quebec, 27; at St François du Lac and Pierreville, 330. Decreasing. Probably no pure blood left. As civilized as the neighbouring whites. All Catholics. Maurault, Hist. des Abenaquis (Quebec, 1866); Jack, Trans. Canad. Inst., 1892-1893.
Acnomawi (Pit river Indians). Shastan. N.E. California. About 1100 in the Pit river region; also 50 or 60 on the Klamath Reservation, Oregon. Little. Progress very slow; influence of schools felt. Klamath Achomawi under Methodist influence. Powers, Contrib. N. Amer. Ethnol., vol. iii., 1877; various writings of Dr R. B. Dixon, American Anthropologist, 1905-1908, &c.
Aleuts. Eskimoan. Aleutian Islands and part of Alaska. About 1600. Decreasing. About 50% are mixed bloods. “Decaying.” Once converted to Greek Orthodox church. Methodist mission at Unalaska. Works (in Russian) of Veniaminov, 1840-1848; Golder, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1905-1907; Chamberlain, Dict. Relig. and Ethics (Hastings, vol. i., 1908).
Amalecttes (Maliseets). Algonkian. 106 at Viger (Cacouna, Quebec); 702 in various parts of W. New Brunswick. Apparently increasing. Probably few pure bloods. Fairly good. At Viger industrially unsettled. Catholics. Writings of S. T. Rand; Chamberlain (M.), Maliseet Vocabuilary (Cambridge, 1899).
Apache. Athabaskan. In Arizona, 4879; New Mexico, 1244; Oklahoma, 453. Not rapidly decreasing as formerly thought. Considerable Spanish blood due to captives, &c. Marked improvement here and there. Catholic and Lutheran missions. Cremony, Life among the Apaches (1868); Bourke, 9th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1887-1888, and Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1890; Hrdlička, American Anthropologist, 1905.
Arapaho. Algonkian. 358 at Ft. Belknap Reservation, Montana; 873 at Wind river Reservation, Wyoming; 885 in Oklahoma. Holding their own. Some Spanish (Mexican) blood in places. Oklahoma Arapaho American citizens; progress elsewhere. Mennonite missions chiefly; also Dutch Reformed. Writings of Kroeber and Dorsey, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1900-1907, and Publ. Field Columb. Mus., 1903; Scott, Amer. Anthrop., 1907.
Assiniboin. Siouan. In Montana, 1248; Alberta, 971; Saskatchewan, 420. Some little. In Canada “steady advance,” elsewhere good. Alberta Assiniboins are Methodists; in Montana Catholic and Presbyterian missions on reservations. Maclean, Canadian Savage Folk (Toronto, 1890); McGee, 15th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1893-1894.
Babines. Athabaskan. 530 on Babine Lake, Bulkley river, &c., in central British Columbia. Little, if any. Conservative. Little progress. Reached by Catholic mission of Stuart Lake, B.C. Morice, Anthropos, 1906-1007, and Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905, and other writings.
Bannock. Shoshonian. About 500 at Ft. Hall, and 78 at Lemhi Agency, Idaho. Little. Considerable improvement morally and industrially. Hoffman, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1886; Mooney, 14th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1892-1893; Lowie, Anthrop. Pap. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1909.
Beaver. Athabaskan. About 700 on Peace river, a western affluent of Lake Athabaska. Very little. Rather stationary. See Babines.
Bilqula (Bellacoola). Salishan. 287 on Dean Inlet, Bentinck Arm, Bellacoola river, &c., coast of central British Columbia. Decreasing. Little. Not very encouraging. Mission influence not yet strongly felt. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1891, and Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898.
Blackfeet (Siksika). Algonkian. About 824 in Alberta, Canada. Decreasing. Little. Steadily improving morally and financially. Anglicans, 237; Catholics, 260; pagans, 327. Maclean, Canadian Savage Folk (Toronto, 1890), and other writings; Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge-Tales (N.Y., 1903), and other writings; Wissler, Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905; Schultz, My Life as an Indian (N.Y., 1907); Wissler, Anthrop. Pap. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1908.
Bloods. Algonkian. 1168 near Ft. Macleod, Alberta. Probably decreasing somewhat. Little. All able-bodied Indians will soon be self-supporting. Presbyterians, 150; Catholics, 150; the rest pagan. See Blackfeet.
Caddo. Caddoan. 550 in Oklahoma. Increasing slightly. Considerable French blood. Citizens of United States. Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian missions. Mooney, 14th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1892-1893; writings of Fletcher, Dorsey, &c.
Cariboo-Eaters. Athabaskan. 1700 in the region E. of Lake Athabaska, N.W. Canada. Little, if any. Little progress. See Babines.
Carriers. Athabaskan. 970 between Tatla Lake and Ft. Alexandria, central British Columbia. Little. Semi-sedentary and naturally progressive as Indians; improvements beginning to be marked. Under influence of Catholic mission at Stuart Lake, B.C. Morice, Proc. Canad. Inst., 1889, Trans. Canad. Inst., 1894, Hist. of Northern Inter. of British Columbia (Toronto, 1904), and other writings. See Babines.
Catawba. Siouan. About 100 on the Catawba river, York county, South Carolina. Decreasing. Much mixed with white blood. Slowly adopting white man's ways. Chiefly farmers. Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East (Washington, 1894); Gatschet, American Anthropologist, 1900; Harrington, ibid., 1908.
Cayuga. Iroquoian. 179 on the Iroquois Reservations in New York State; 1044 with the Six Nations in Ontario; also some with the Seneca in Oklahoma and with Oneida in Wisconsin. Some English admixture. Canadian Cayuga steadily improving; they are “pagan.” See Six Nations.
Cayuse. Wailatpuan. 405 on Umatilla Reservation, Oregon About ¼ are of mixed blood, chiefly French. Conditions improving. Good work of Catholic and Presbyterian missions. Mowry, Marcus Whitman (1901); Lewis, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc., 1906.
Chehalis. Salishan. 182 on Puyallup Reservation, Washington. Perhaps increasing slightly. No data. Gradually improving and generally prosperous. Congregational mission. Gibbs, Contrib. N. Amer. Ethnol., vol. iii., 1877; Eells, Hist. of Ind. Missions on the Pacific Coast (N.Y., 1882), and other writings.
Chemehuevi. Shoshonian. About 300 on the Colorado Reservation; a few elsewhere in Arizona and California. No data. Some improvement. Missions of the Presbyterians and of the Church of the Nazarene. See Ute.
Cherokee. Iroquoian. About 28,000, of which 1489 are in North Carolina and the rest in Oklahoma. Not more than ¼ are of approximately pure blood. Oklahoma Cherokee citizens of the United States, and making excellent progress. Various religious faiths. Royce, 5th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1883-1884; Mooney, 7th Rep., 1885-1886, and especially 19th Rep., 1897-1898.