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460
[TRIBES
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN
Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of
Intermixture.
Condition, Progress, &c. Authorities.
Cheyenne. Algonkian. 1440 northern Cheyenne in Montana, 1894 southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma. Former increasing, latter decreasing. Some white blood from captives, &c. Southern Cheyenne citizens of United States; Mennonite mission doing good work. Northern Cheyenne making progress as labourers, &c.; Mennonite and Catholic missions. Mooney, 14th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1892-1893; Dorsey, Publ. Field Columb. Mus., 1905 ; Grinnell, Intern. Congr. Americanists, 1902-1906; Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1907-1908; Amer. Anthrop., 1902-1906; Mooney and Petter, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc., 1907.
Chickahominy. Algonkian. Some 220 on Chickahominy river, Virginia. No pure bloods left. Considerable negro admixture. Fishers and Farmers. Tooker, Algonquian Series (N.Y., 1900); Mooney, Amer. Anthrop., 1907.
Chickasaw. Muskogian. 5558 in Oklahoma. Large admixture of white blood. American citizens and progressing well. Various religious faiths. Speck, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1907, and Amer. Anthrop., 1907.
Chilcotin. Athabaskan. About 450 on Chilcotin river, in S. central British Columbia. Little. Fairly laborious, but clinging to native customs, though making progress. Catholic mission influence. Writings of Morice (see Carriers); Farrand, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1900.
Chilkat. Koluschan. About 700 at head of Lynn Canal, Alaska. Decreasing. No data. Little progress. Emmons and Boas, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1908.
Chinook. Chinookan. About 300 in Oregon. Decreasing. Some little. Stationary or “worse.” Boas, Chinook Texts (Washington, 1894), and other writings; Sapir, Amer. Anthrop., 1907.
Chipewyan. Athabaskan. About 3000 in the region S. of Lake Athabaska, N.W. Canada. Some Canadian-French admixture. Coming to be more influenced by the whites. Reached by Catholic missions. Writings of Petitot, Legoff, Morice (see Babines), &c.; Morice, Anthropos, 1906-1907, and Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905.
Chippewa (Ojibwa) Algonkian. About 18,000 in Ontario, Manitoba, &c.; nearly the same number in the United States (Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, N. Dakota). Much French and English admixture in various regions. Good progress. Many Indians quite equal to average whites of neighbourhood. Among the Canadian Chippewa the Methodists, Catholics and Anglicans are well represented; among those in the United States the Catholics and Episcopalians chiefly, also Methodists, Lutherans, &c. A number of native ministers. Warren, Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1885; Blackbird, Ottawa and Chippewa Indians (1887); W. Jones, Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905; Hugolin, Congr. int. d. Amér. (Quebec, 1906); P. Jones, Hist. Ojebway Inds. (1861).
Choctaw. Muskogian. 17,529 in Oklahoma; 1356 in Mississippi and Louisiana. Large element of wnite and some negro blood. Citizens of United States, making good progress. Various religious faiths. Gatschet, Migration Legend of Creeks (1884-1888); Speck, Amer. Anthrop., 1907.
Clayoquot. Wakashan. 224 in the region of Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island. Decreasing. No data. Rather stationary, but beginning to improve. Influence or Catholic mission and industrial school. See Nootka.
Clallam. Salishan. 354 on Puyallup Reservation, Washington. Little. Improving, but suffering from white contact. Congregationalist mission. Eells in Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst., 1887, and other writings.
Colville. Salishan. 316 at Colville Agency, Washington. Decreasing slightly. Some Canadian-French, &c. Improving. See Chehalis.
Comanche. Shoshonian. 1408 in Oklahoma. Now holding their own. Some due to Spanish (Mexican) captives, &c. Good progress, in spite of white impositions. Mooney, 14th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1892-1893.
Cowichan. Salishan. About 1000 on E. coast of Vancouver Island, and on islands in Gulf of Georgia. Little. Industrious; steady progress. Catholic and Methodist missions, chiefly former. Hill-Tout, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1902, and Trans. R. Anthrop. Inst., 1907; Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1889.
Cree. Algonkian. About 12,000 in Manitoba, and some 5000 in Saskatchewan, Alberta, Keewatin, &c. Large element of French, Scottish and English blood. Slow but steady progress (except with a few bands). Catholics, Methodists and Anglirans strongly represented by missions and church members; many Presbyterians also. Writings of Petitot, Lacombe, Horden, Bell, Watkins, Evans, Young, &c.; Lacombe, Dict. de la langue des Cris (1876); Russell, Explor. in the Far North (1898); Stewart, Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905; Maclean, Canad. Sav. Folk ( 1890).
Creek. Muskogian. 11,000 in Oklahoma. Large element of white blood; some negro. American citizens, making good progress. Various religious faiths. Gatschet, Migration Legend of the Creeks (1884-1888); Speck, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc., 1907.
Crows (Absaroka). Siouan. 1804 at Crow Agency, Montana. Little. Improving industrially and financially. Morals still bad. Simms, Publ. Field Columb. Mus., 1903; Schultz, My Life as an Indian (N.Y., 1907).
Dakota (Santee, Yankton, Teton — Sioux). Siouan. About 18,000 in South and 4400 in North Dakota; 3200 in Montana; 900 in Minnesota. Seemingly decreasing. Considerable white blood, varying with different sections. Capable of and making good progress. Episcopal, Catholic, Congregational missions with good results. Writings of Dorsey, Riggs, Eastman, &c. Riggs, Contrib. N. Amer. Ethnol., vol. vii., 1890, and vol. ix., 1893; Wissler, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1907; Eastman, Indian Boyhood (1902).
Delaware. Algonkian. In Oklahoma, 800 with Cherokee and 90 with Wichita; 164 with Six Nations in Ontario. Considerable. Oklahoma, Delaware, U.S. citizens, and progressing; Canadians making also good progress. Brinton, Lenápé and their Legends (Phila., 1885), and Essays of an Americanist (1890); Nelson, Indians of New Jersey (1894).
Dog-Ribs. Athabaskan. About 1000 in the region E. of the Hares, to Back river, N.W. Canada. Little. “Wild and indolent,” not yet much under white influence. See Chipewyans, Carriers.
Eskimo (Greenland). Eskimoan. West coast, 10,500; East coast, 500. Slowly increasing. Large element of white blood, estimated already in 1855 at 30%. More or less “civilized” and “Christian” as result of Moravian missions. Writings of Rink, Holm, Nansen, Peary. Rink, Tales and Trad. of the Eskimo (Lond., 1875) and Eskimo Tribes (1887); Nansen, Eskimo Life (1893); Thalbitzer, Eskimo Language (1904).
Eskimo (Labrador). Eskimoan. About 1300. Considerable on S.E. coast. Much improvement due to Moravian and (later) other Protestant missions. Packard, Amer. Naturalist, 1885; Turner, 11th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1889-1890.