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TRIBES]
461
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN
Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of
Intermixture.
Condition, Progress, &c. Authorities.
Eskimo (central regions). Eskimoan. About 2500. Little. Not much improvement except here and there. Some reached by Episcopalian mission. Boas, 6th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-1885, and Bull. Amer. Nat. Hist., 1901 and 1908.
Eskimo (Mackenzie, &c.). Eskimoan. About 1500. Little. Not much improvement. Reached by Catholic missions. Petitot, Les Grands Esquimaux (1887), Monographie des Esquimaux Tchiglit (Paris, 1876) and other writings; Stefánsson, Harper's Magazine, 1908-1909.
Eskimo (Alaska). Eskimoan. About 12,000, exclusive of Aleuts. Considerable on certain parts of coast. Much improvement in parts since introduction of reindeer in 1892. Presbyterian, Methodist, Catholic, Moravian, Baptist, Swedish Evangelical, Quaker, Congregational, Lutheran missions now at work. Dall, Contrib. N. Amer. Ethnol., vol. i., 1877; Murdoch, 9th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1887-1888; and Nelson, 18th Rep., 1896-1897; Barnum, Innuit Gramm. and Dict. (1901).
Eskimo (N.E. Asia). Eskimoan. About 1200. Little. Little improvement. Hooper, Tents of the Tuski (1851); Dall, Amer. Naturalist (1881). See Eskimo (Alaska).
Flatheads. Salishan. 615 at Flathead Agency, Montana. Considerable. Continued Improvement. Catholic missions. McDermott, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1901; Ronan, Flathead Indians (1890).
Gosiute. Shoshonian. About 200 in Utah. Little. Some improvement in last few years. Chamberlin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1908. See Paiute, Ute.
Grosventres (Atsina). Algonkian. 558 at Ft. Belknap Agency, Montana. Little. Law-abiding, industrious and fast becoming more moral. Catholic, chief mission influence, also Presbyterian. Kroeber, Anthrop. Pap. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1907-1908.
Haida. Haidan. About 600 on Queen Charlotte Is., and 300 in Alaska. Decreasing. Some little. Now “gradually advancing along the lines of civilization.” Mission influences Methodists and Anglican, with much success, especially former. Swanton, Contrib. to Ethnol. of the Haida (1905) and other writings; Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1889; Newcombe, Congr. intern, des Amér (Quebec, 1906).
Hankut'qin. Athabaskan. About 400 on the Yukon, above the Kotlo, in Alaska. Little, if any. Not yet much under white or missionary influence. See Babines.
Hares. Athabaskan. About 600 W. of Gt. Bear Lake to Eskimo country, in N.W. Canada. Little. “Wild and indolent,” with little improvement. Reached by Catholic missions. See Babines, Carriers, Chipewyan.
Havasupai. Yuman. 166 N. of Prescott in N.W. Arizona. Decreasing. Little. “Good workers”; not yet distinctly under mission influence. James, Indians of the Painted Desert Region (Boston, 1903); Dorsey, Indians of the South-west (1903).
Hidatsa. Siouan. 467 near Ft. Berthold, N. Dakota. Little. Making good progress. Congregational and Catholic missions. Matthews, Ethnogr. and Philol. of the Hidatsa (1877); McGee, 15th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1893-1894; Pepper and Wilson, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc., 1908.
Hupa. Athabaskan. 420 in Hoopa Valley, N.E. California. Little. Self-supporting by agriculture and stock-raising. Presbyterian and Episcopal missions with good results. Goddard, Life and Culture of the Hupa (1903), Hupa Texts (1904), and other writings.
Hurons of Lorette. Iroquoian. 466 at Lorette, near the city of Quebec. Increasing, but losing somewhat by emigration. No pure-bloods left. Practically civilized. All Catholics, except one Anglican and six Presbyterians. Gérin, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1900.
Iowa. Siouan. 246 in Kansas; 88 in Oklahoma. Holding their own. Considerable. In 1906 “accomplished more on their allotments than at any time heretofore.” One regular missionary. Dorsey, Trans. Anthrop. Soc. Wash., 1883, and 15th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1893-1894; also 11th Rep.
Iroquois (of Caughnawaga). Iroquoian. 2075 at Caughnawaga, in S.W. Quebec (largely Mohawk). Increasing. Few, if any, pure-bloods left. Practically civilized and making fair progress. Chiefly Catholics, but there is a Methodist school. Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. Canada, 1907.
Iroquois (of Lake of Two Mountains). Iroquoian. 395 at Lake of Two Mountains, Quebec. Few, if any, pure-bloods left. Practically civilized and making fair progress. Catholics and Methodists represented. Cuoq, Lexique de la langue iroquoise (1882), and other writings.
Iroquois (of St Régis). Iroquoian. 1449 at St Régis, Quebec; 1208 at St Regis, New York. Few pure-bloods left. Practically all civilized and making fair progress. Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. Canada, 1907.
Iroquois (of Watha). Iroquoian. About 65 at Watha (formerly Gibson), near the southern end of Lake Muskoka, Ontario. Considerable. Industrious and progressive. Influence of Methodist mission. Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. Canada, 1907.
Iroquois (of St Albert). Iroquoian. 94 near St Albert, Alberta (“Michel's band”). “Indians only in name,” no pure-bloods left. Practically civilized; outlook promising. Catholics. Chamberlain, Amer. Anthrop., 1904.
Jicarilla (Apache). Athabaskan. 784 in New Mexico. Decreasing. Little. Improvement during past few years. Mooney, Amer. Anthrop., 1898. See Apache.
Kaibab. Shoshonian. About 100 in S.W. Utah. Decreasing. Little. “Destitute,” but gaining somewhat. See Paiute, Ute.
Kaigani. Haidan. About 300 in S. Alaska. See Haida. See Haida. See Haida.
'Kaiyuhkho'tenne Athabaskan. About 1500 on the Yukon (between the Anvik and Koyukuk) in W. Alaska. Little. Up to the present influenced more by the Eskimo than by the whites. See Babines, Carriers. Also Chapman, Congr. inter. d. Amér. (Quebec, 1906).
Kalapooia. Kalapuyan. About 125 at Grande Ronde, Oregon, and a few also on the Siletz Reservation. Not much. Continued improvement. Powell, 7th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1885-1886; Gatschet, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1899; Lewis, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc., 1906.
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreille). Salishan. 826 on the Flathead Reservation, Montana; 98 at Colville Agency, Washington. Considerable. Continued improvement. Catholic missions. Giorda, Kalispel Dictionary (1877-1879). See Chehalis.