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Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of
Condition, Progress, &c. Authorities.
Seminole. Muskogian. 2132 in Oklahoma; 350 in Florida. Much white and some negro blood. Oklahoma Seminoles American citizens. MacCauley, 5th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1887; Coe, Red Patriots (1898). See Creek.
Seneca. Iroquoian. 383 in Oklahoma; 2742 in New York; 215 with Six Nations, on Grand river, Ontario. Considerable. See Six Nations. Sanborn, Seneca Indians (1862); Hubbard, An Account of Sa-go-ye-wat-ha, or Red Jacket and his People (Albany, 1886). See Six Nations.
Shawnee. Algonkian. 574 in Oklahoma. Considerable. Progress good. Catholic and Protestant missions. See Pilling, Bibl. of Algon. Lang. (1891). Also Harvey, Shawnee Indians (1855).
Shoshonee. Shoshonian. About 1000 in Idaho; 242 in Nevada; 793 in Wyoming. Amount of admixture not large. Progress good in the last few years. Catholic and Protestant Episcopal missions. Culin, Bull. Free Mus. Sci. and Art (Phila., 1901); Dorsey, Indians of the South-west (1903). See Ute.
Shuswap (Sequapamuq). Salishan. About 1000 in the S. interior of British Columbia; also 52 within the Kootenay area at the Columbia Lakes. Considerable in places. Industrious and law-abiding. Catholic and Protestant missions. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1890. and Ethnogr. Album (N.Y., 1900); Dawson, Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 1891; Boas, Indianische Sagen (1895).
Siletz. Indians of several stocks. 483 on Siletz Reservation, Oregon. Considerable. Progress good. Dorsey, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1890, and Amer. Anthrop., 1889.
Six Nations (Canada). Iroquoian. On Grand River Reservation, Ontario; Cayuga, 1044; Mohawk, 1762; Oneida, 350; Onondaga, 350; Seneca, 215; Tuscarora, 397. Total, 4118. Large admixture of white blood. Generally capable and industrious, and steadily improving; many, both in U.S. and Canada, equal to whites. The Canadian Cayuga and Onondaga are “pagans.” Many Christian faiths represented. Boyle, Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1898 and 1905, and Journ. Anthr. Inst., 1900; Hale, Iroquois Book of Rites (Phila., 1883); Wilson, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 1885. See also under tribal names.
Six Nations (New York). Iroquoian. In New York State; Cayuga, 179; Oneida, 286; Onondaga, 553; Seneca, 2742; Tuscarora, 356. Total, 4116. Large admixture of white blood. Improvement varying with tribes; Tuscarora said to be best. Various religious faiths. Beauchamp, Bull. N.Y. State Mus., 1897-1907, The Iroquois Trail (1892), and other writings; Smith, 2nd Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1880-1881; Hewitt, 21st Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1899-1900, and other writings. See also under tribal names.
Skiqomic. Salishan. About 150 in the Howe Sd. and Burrard Inlet region of British Columbia. Some Canadian-French admixture. “Probably the most industrious and orderly band of Indians in the province.” Catholic mission. Hill-Tout, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1900; Boas, ibid., 1894.
Slavé. Athabaskan. About 1100 in the region W. of Gt. Bear Lake, from Ft. Simpson to Ft. Norman in N.W. Canada. No certain data; but some admixture now going on. No marked progress, but white influence being felt. Catholics and Episcopal missions. Various writings of Petitot and Morice; the latter in Anthropos, 1906-1907; Bompas, Mackenzie River (London, 1888); Bell, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1901.
Snaimuq (Nanaimo). Salishan. About 160 on reserve near Nanaimo Harbour, B.C. No data. Making good progress recently. Catholic mission. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1889, and Amer. Anthrop., 1889.
Songish (Lkungen). Salishan. About 200 in S.E. Vancouver Island, B.C. No data. Industrious and mostly well-off. Catholic mission. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1890; Hill-Tout, Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst., 1907.
Spokan. Salishan. 91 in Idaho; 133 in Montana; 434 in Washington. Considerable. Improving. Writings of Rev. M. Eells. See Chehalis.
Tahltan. Athabaskan. 220 in the N. Interior of British Columbia, at mouth of Tahltan river. Little. Making good progress. Teit, Boas Anniv. Vol. (N.Y., 1906).
Ten'a. Athabaskan. About 2000 on the Yukon, between Tanara and Koserefsky in Alaska. Little. Not yet much influenced by whites. Catholic mission. Jetté, Congr. int. des Amér. 1906; Man, 1907; Journ. Anthr. Inst., 1907.
Thompson Indian (Ntlakapamuk). Salishan. About 1770 in the Thompson river region, S. central British Columbia. Not very much. Making good progress. Catholic and Protestant missions. Teit and Boas, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1900; Teit, Trad. of Thompson Inds. (Boston, 1898); Hill-Tout, Salish and Déné (London, 1907).
Tlingit. Koluschan. About 2000 in S. Alaska. Considerable in places. Not marked generally. Greek Orthodox and other missions. Krause, Die Tlinkit Indianer (Berlin, 1885); Boas, Indianische Sagen (Berlin, 1905); Bogoras, Amer. Anthrop., 1902; Swanton, 26th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1904-1905; Emmons, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1903.
Tonkawa. Tonkawan. 47 in Oklahoma. No data. “Contented and enjoying life.” Mooney, Globus, 1902.
Tsimshian (Proper). Tsimshian. About 2000 in northern British Columbia. Not large. Making good progress. Anglican and other missions. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1889, and Indianische Sagen (Berlin, 1895); von der Schulenburg, Die Sprache der Zimshian-Indianer (1894); Wellcome, Metlakatla (1887).
Tuscarora. Iroquoian. 397 on Six Nation Reservation, Ontario; 356 with Six Nations, New York. Considerable. Making good progress in both Canada and New York. See Six Nations.
Tutchonekut'qin. Athabaskan. About 1000 on the Yukon from Deer river to Ft. Selkirk, in Alaska. Little. Little progress. See Babines, Carriers, Chipewyan.
Uinta Ute. Shoshonian. 435 in Utah. Little. See Ute. See Ute.
Umatilla. Sahaptian. 207 in Oregon. Some. Making progress. Catholic and Presbyterian missions. See Nez Percés.
Uncompaghre Ute. Shoshonian. 493 in Utah. Little. See Ute. See Ute.
Ute. Shoshonian. 845 in Colorado; 1245 in Utah. Not much. Some progress recently. Catholic and Protestant missions. Culin, Bull. Free Mus. Sci. and Art (Phila., 1901); Kroeber, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1901, and Amer. Anthrop., 1906.