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464
[TRIBES
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN
Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of
Intermixture.
Condition, Progress, &c. Authorities.
Pamunkey. Algonkian. About 140 in King William county, Virginia. All mixed-bloods; some negro mixture. Fishermen and small farmers. Pollard, The Pamunkey Indians of Virginia (Washington, 1894).
Panamint. Shoshonian. About 100 in the Panammt Valley, S.E. California. No data. Stationary. Coville, Amer. Anthrop., 1892.
Papago. Piman. 4991 in Arizona; about 1000 in Mexico. Little. Making very good progress recently. Catholic mission. McGee in Coville and Macdougal, Des. bot. lab., 1903; Bandelier, Arch. Inst. Papers, 1890. See Pima.
Passamaquoddy. Algonkian. About 350 in Maine. Considerable French and English. With Penobscots have representative in Maine legislature. Leland, Algonq. Leg. of New England (Boston, 1885); Brown, Trans. R. Soc. Canada, 1889; Prince, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1897; Leland and Prince, Kuloskap (Boston, 1902).
Pawnee. Caddoan. 649 in Oklahoma. Decreasing. Considerable. Citizens of U.S. Special progress recently in agriculture. Methodist mission. Writings of Dunbar, Grinnell, Dorsey, Fletcher, &c.; Grinnell, Pawnee Hero-Stories (1889); Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee (Boston, 1904), and Pawnee Mythology (1906); Fletcher, 22nd Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1900-1901.
Penobscot. Algonkian. About 410 in Maine. Considerable. See Passamaquoddy. See Passamaquoddy.
Peoria. Algonkian. 192 with Kaskaskia, Wea and Plankaskaw in Oklahoma. No pure-bloods left. American citizens and progressing well. See Pilling, Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages (1891).
Piegan. Algonkian. 482 near Macleod, Alberta; 2072 at Blackfoot Agency, Montana. Considerable. Improvement slow in Montana; in Alberta, “noticeable advance along all lines.” Methodist and Anglican missions in Alberta. See Blackfeet.
Pima. Shoshonian. 3936 in Arizona; more in Mexico. Increasing slightly. Considerable. Making good progress recently. Catholic and Protestant missions. Russel, Amer. Anthrop., 1903, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1901, and 26th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1904-1905; Dorsey, Indians of the South-west (1903); Hrdlička, Amer. Anthrop., 1904; Kroeber, Univ. Calif. Publ., 1907.
Pomo. Kulanapan. About 1000 in N.E. California. Little. Progress good. Barrett, Ethnography of the Pomo (1908).
Ponca. Siouan. 570 in Oklahoma. Considerable. U.S. citizens, making good progress. Dorsey (J. O.), Cegiha Language (1890), Omaha and Ponka Letters (1891), &c.; Dorsey (G. A.), Field Columb. Mus. Publ., 1905; Boas, Congr. int. d. Amér., Quebec, 1906.
Potawatomi. Algonkian. 179 on Walpole Island, Ontario; 1740 in Oklahoma. Considerable. Canadian Potawatomi are law-abiding and industrious. American Potawatomi citizens making progress. See Pilling, Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages (1891).
Pueblos. Keresan. 3990 in 6 pueblos in N. central New Mexico. Larger element of white blood than other Pueblos Indians, but not great. Majority nominally Catholics. Writings of Bandelier, Hodge, Lummis, Stevenson, &c. Stevenson, 11th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1889-1890; Dorsey, Indians of the South-west (1903); Bandelier, Archaeol. Inst. Papers, 1881, 1883, 1892.
Pueblos. Shoshonian. See Moqui. See Moqui. See Moqui. See Moqui.
Pueblos. Tanoan. About 4200 in 12 pueblos in New Mexico. Have not favoured intermixture. Amount little. Nominally Catholics for most part. At San Juan notable evidences of thrift, less elsewhere. Writings of Bandelier, Lummis, Fewkes. &c. See Pueblos (Keresan) and Moqui.
Pueblos. Zuñian. 1500 in Western New Mexico. Have not favoured white intermixture. Practically all are “pagans.” Substantial progress lately in several ways. Bandelier, Journ. Amer. Ethnol. and Archaeol., 1892; Fewkes, ibid., 1891; Stevenson, 5th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1883-1884, and 23rd Rep., 1901-1902; Cushing, 2nd Rep., 1880-1881, 4th Rep., 1882-1883, 13th Rep., 1891-1892, and Zuñi Folk-Tales (N.Y., 1901), and other writings.
Puyallup. Salishan. 486 at the Puyallup Agency, Washington. Considerable. Suffering from white contact; future not bright. See Chehalis.
Quapaw. Siouan. 292 in Oklahoma. Considerable. Majority are intelligent, thrifty and progressive. Catholic missions. Dorsey (J. O.), 11th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1889-1890, 13th Rep. 1891-1892, and other writings.
Quileute. Chemakuan. 232 at Neah Bay Agency, N.W. Washington. Considerable. Progress good. See Clallam.
Quinaielt. Salishan. 142 at Puyallup Agency in N.W. Washington. Considerable. See Nisqualli. Farrand, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1902; Conard, Open Court, 1905.
Sacs and Foxes (Sauk, &c.). Algonkian. 343 in Iowa; 630 in Oklahoma; 90 in Kansas. Considerable. Continued improvement; conservative opposition less. Catholic missions. Lasley, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1902; Jones, ibid., 1901, and Fox Texts (1907); Owen, Folk-Lore of the Musquaki (1904).
Sanspoil. Salishan, 126 at Colville Agency, Washington. Considerable. Improving. See Chehalis.
Sarcee. Athabaskan. 205 S.W. of Calgary, Alberta. More than many other tribes of this stock. Making good material progress lately. Anglican mission. Maclean, Canad. Savage Folk (1890); Goddard, Congr. int. d. Amér., 1906; Morice, ibid. and Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905; Simms, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1904.
Sekané (Sikani). Athabaskan. About 450 on Finlay and Parsnip rivers and W. to forks of Tatla Lake in N. central British Columbia. Little. Not so progressive as Carriers &c. Reached by Catholic mission from Stuart Lake. Morice, Anthropos, 1906, 1907, and Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905, and other writings. See Babines, Carriers.