Open main menu
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
TRIBES]
463
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN
Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of
Intermixture.
Condition, Progress, &c. Authorities.
Mohawk. Iroquoian. 1762 with Six Nations, Grand river, Ont., 1320, Bay of Quinte, Ont., slight increase. The “Iroquois” at Caughnawaga, &c., are largely Mohawks. Considerable English and French. See Six Nations. Forbes, Congr. intern. d. Amér., Quebec, 1906; Brant-Sero, Man (London, 1901). See Six Nations.
Montagnais. Algonkian. About 2000 in N.E. Quebec, N. shore of St Lawrence and St John, &c. Large element of French blood. At St John, “energetic, hard working and provident”; others suffering from liquor, &c. Catholic missions. Chambers, The Ouananiche (1896); Chamberlain, Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905; David, Congr. int. d. Amér., Quebec, 1906.
Moqui (Hopi). Shoshonian. About 2000 in N.E. Arizona. Little. Still “pagan,” but “dry-farming” experts. At Oraihi two factions, progressives and conservatives. Mennonite mission. Bourke, Snake Dance Among the Moquis (1884); Hough, Amer. Anthrop., 1898; Dorsey and Voth, Field Columb. Mus. Publ., 1901-1902. Also the numerous monographs of Dr. J. W. Fewkes in Rep. Bur. Ethnol. Amer. Anthrop., Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1894-1908.
“Moravians.” Algonkian. 329 on river Thames, Ontario, Canada. Considerable. Generally industrious and very law-abiding. All Methodists. Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. Canada, 1907.
Munsee. Algonkian. 118 on river Thames, Ontario, Canada; also a few with the Stockbridges in Wisconsin and the Chippewa in Kansas. Considerable. Fairly industrious; progress slow. Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. Canada, 1907.
Nahané. Athabaskan. About 1000 in N.W. British Columbia, N. and S. of Stikeen river, and E. to beyond the Rockies. Not much. Have suffered much from white contact. Reached by Catholic missions from Stuart Lake. Writings of Petitot, Morice, &c., especially the latter in Trans. Canad. Inst., 1894, Proc. Canad. Inst., 1889. See Carriers.
Nascapee. Algonkian. Some 2500 in N.E. Quebec, Labrador, &c. Not very much. Improvement not marked. Catholic mission influence. Burner, 11th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1889-1890; Chamberlain, Ann. Arch. Rep. Ontario, 1905.
Navaho. Athabaskan. About 29,000 in Arizona and New Mexico, about 8000 in the latter state. Increasing in number. Much Spanish (Mexican) blood. Have made remarkable progress racially and individually. Catholic, Presbyterian, &c., missions. Writings of Dr. W. Matthews, especially Navaho Legends (Boston, 1897), The Night Chant (N.Y.. 1902).
Nespelim. Salishan. 191 at Colville Agency, Washington. Considerable. Suffering from liquor and white contact. See Chehalis.
Nez Percés. Sahaptian. 83 at Colville Agency, Washington, 1534 under Ft. Lapwai superintendency, Idaho. Decreasing. Amount uncertain. Of a high intellectual type (seen in children); suffering much from disease and white contact. About 60% Catholics and 15% Presbyterians. Packard, Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 1891; McBeth, The Nez Percés since Lewis and Clark (New York, 1908); Spinden, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc., 1908.
Nipissing. Algonkian. 239 on Lake Nipissing, Ontario. Increasing. Little. Improving. Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. Canada, 1907.
Nipissino (Algonquins). Algonkian. About 60 at Lake of Two Mountains, Quebec. Considerable. Little marked progress; but fairly industrious. Catholics. Writings of Rev. J. A. Cuoq, especially Lexique algonquin (Montreal, 1886); Lemoine, Congr. inter. d. Amér., Quebec, 1906.
Niska (Nasqa). Tsimshian. About 800 in Nass river region in W. British Columbia. Decreasing. Little. Making good progress. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1895, 1896, and Indianische Sagen (Berlin, 1895). See Tsimshian.
Nisqualli. Salishan. 146 in W. Washington. Considerable. Suffering from white contact, liquor, &c. Gibbs, Contrib. N. Amer. Ethnol., vol. i., 1877, and Niskwalli Dictionary, ibid.
Nootka. Wakashan. 2133 (including Clayoquot) on Vancouver Island, B.C. Decreasing slowly. Considerable in places. Industrious and law-abiding; evil from white contact increasing. Catholic and Presbyterian missions. Sproat, Scenes and Studies of Savage Life (1868); Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1890, and Indianische Sagen (1895).
Okanagan. Salishan. 824 in the Kamloops-Okanagan Agency, British Columbia; 527 on Colville Reservation, Washington. Considerable in places. Industrious and law-abiding. Catholic, and in Canada Catholic and Anglican churches largely represented. Boas, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1889; Teit, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1900.
Omaha. Siouan. 1128 in Nebraska. Much white blood. Good process in many respects; improvidence, &c., still causing trouble. Presbyterian mission. Dorsey, 3rd Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1881-1882, and 13th Rep., 1891-1892, and other writings. Also writings of Miss A. C. Fletcher. See Ponca.
Oneida. Iroquoian. 777 on river Thames, Ontario, and 350 with Six Nations in Ontario; 2151 in Wisconsin; 286 in New York. Increasing. Large element of white blood. Canadian Oneidas at Delaware full citizens. All progressing excellently and self-supporting. U.S Oneidas citizens. Bloomfield, The Oneidas (N.Y., 1907). See Six Nations.
Onondaga. Iroquoian. 350 with the Six Nations, Ontario; 553 in New York. Large element of white blood. Not so advanced in U.S. as Tuscarora. Clark, Onondaga (Syracuse, 1849); writings of Beauchamp, de Cost Smith, M. R. Harrington, &c. See Six Nations.
Osage. Siouan. 1994 in Oklahoma. Very much white blood; half are mixed-bloods. U.S. citizens and making good progress. Baptists and Catholics represented. Dorsey (J. O.), 6th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1884-1885; Brewster, Trans. Kans. State Hist. Soc., 1906; Dorsey (G. A.), Publ. Field Columb. Mus., 1904; Speck, Trans. Arch. Dept. Univ. of Penn. (Phila., 1907).
Oto. Siouan. About 390 with the Missouri in Oklahoma. Considerable. Making good progress. See Osage.
Ottawa. Algonkian. About 750 on Manitoulin and Coburn Islands, Ontario; 2750 in Michigan; 197 in Oklahoma. Considerable French and English blood. Canadian Ottawa industrious and law-abiding, and many in the U.S as civilized as average whites about them. Catholic and Protestant missions. Blackbird, Ottawa and Chippewa Indians (1887). See Pilling's Bibliography of the Algonkian Languages, 1891.
Paiute. Shoshonian. 6500 to 7000 chiefly in Nevada (about 600 in Utah; 350 in Arizona). No data. Peaceable, moral and industrious; “have steadily resisted the vice of civilization.” Catholic and Protestant missions. Mooney in 14th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1892-1893. See Ute.