comedy, Magnetism in a Barber’s Shop. In 1822 the poet was nominated lector in Danish language and literature at Sorö College, and he now married. Valdemar the Great and his Men, an historical epic, appeared in 1824. The next few years were occupied with his best and most durable work, his four great national and historical novels of Valdemar Seier, 1826; Erik Menved’s Childhood, 1828; King Erik, 1833; and Prince Otto of Denmark, 1835. He then returned to epic poetry in Queen Margaret, 1836, and in a cycle of romances, Holger Danske, 1837. His later writings consist of religious and sentimental lyrics, epic poems, novels, short stories in prose, and fairy tales. His last publication was The Apple of Gold, 1856. In 1846 Ingemann was nominated director of Sorö College, a post from which he retired in 1849. He died on the 24th of February 1862. Ingemann enjoyed during his lifetime a popularity unapproached even by that of Öhlenschläger. His boundless facility and fecundity, his sentimentality, his religious melancholy, his direct appeal to the domestic affections, gave him instant access to the ear of the public. His novels are better than his poems; of the former the best are those which are directly modelled on the manner of Sir Walter Scott. As a dramatist he outlived his reputation, and his unwieldy epics are now little read.
Ingemann’s works were collected in 41 vols. at Copenhagen (1843-1865). His autobiography was edited by Galskjöt in 1862; his correspondence by V. Heise (1879-1881); and his letters to Grundtvig by S. Grundtvig (1882). See also H. Schwanenflügel, Ingemanns Liv og Digtning (1886); and Georg Brandes, Essays (1889).
INGERSOLL, ROBERT GREEN (1833-1899), American lawyer and lecturer, was born in Dresden, New York, on the 11th of August 1833. His father was a Congregational minister, who removed to Wisconsin in 1843 and to Illinois in 1845. Robert, who had received a good common-school education, was admitted to the bar in 1854, and practised law with success in Illinois. Late in 1861, during the Civil War, he organized a cavalry regiment, of which he was colonel, until captured at Lexington, Tennessee, on the 18th of December 1862, by the Confederate cavalry under General N. B. Forrest. He was paroled, waited in vain to be exchanged, and in June 1863 resigned from the service. He was attorney-general of Illinois in 1867-1869, and in 1876 his speech in the Republican National Convention, naming James G. Blaine for the Presidential candidate, won him a national reputation as a public speaker. As a lawyer he distinguished himself particularly as counsel for the defendants in the “Star-Route Fraud” trials. He was most widely known, however, for his public lectures attacking the Bible, and his anti-Christian views were an obstacle to his political advancement. Ingersoll was an eloquent rhetorician rather than a logical reasoner. He died at Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., on the 21st of July 1899.
His principal lectures and speeches were published under the titles: The Gods and Other Lectures (1876); Some Mistakes of Moses (1879); Prose Poems (1884); Great Speeches (1887). His lectures, entitled “The Bible,” “Ghosts,” and “Foundations of Faith,” attracted particular attention. His complete works were published in 12 vols. in New York in 1900.
INGERSOLL, a town and port of entry of Oxford county, Ontario, Canada, 19 m. E. of London, on the river Thames and the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railways. Pop. (1901) 4572. The principal manufactures are agricultural implements, furniture, pianos and screws. There is a large export trade in cheese and farm produce.
INGHAM, CHARLES CROMWELL (1796-1863), American artist, was born in Dublin, Ireland. He was a pupil of the Dublin Academy, emigrated to the United States at the age of twenty-one, and immediately became identified with the art life of that country, being one of the founders of the National Academy of New York in 1826 and its vice-president from 1845 to 1850. He painted portraits of the reigning beauties of New York and acquired considerable reputation, continuing to practise his profession until his death, in New York, on the 10th of December 1863.
INGHIRAMI, the name of an Italian noble family of Volterra. The following are its most important members:
Tommaso Inghirami (1470-1516), a humanist, is best known for his Latin orations, seven of which were published in 1777. His success in the part of Phaedra in a presentation of Seneca’s Hippolytus (or Phaedra) led to his being generally known as Fedra. He received high honours from Alexander VI., Leo X. and Maximilian I.
Francesco Inghirami (1772-1846), a distinguished archaeologist, fought in the French wars (1799), and afterwards devoted himself especially to the study of Etruscan antiquities. He founded a college at Fiesole and collected, though without critical insight, a mass of valuable material in his Monumenti etruschi (10 vols., 1820-1827), Galleria omerica (3 vols., 1829-1851), Pitture di vasi fittili (1831-1837), Museo etrusco chiusino (2 vols., 1833), and the incomplete Storia della Toscana (1841-1845): these works were elaborately illustrated.
His brother, Giovanni Inghirami (1779-1851), was an astronomer of repute. He was professor of astronomy at the Institute founded by Ximenes in Florence and published beside a number of text-books Effemeridi dell’ occultazione delle piccole stelle sotto la luna (1809-1830); Effemeridi di Venese e Giove all’ uso de’ naviganti (1821-1824); Tavole astronomichi universali portatili (1811); Base trigonometrica misurata in Toscana (1818); Carta topografica e geometrica della Toscana (1830).
INGLEBY, CLEMENT MANSFIELD (1823-1886), English Shakespearian scholar, was born at Edgbaston, Birmingham, on the 29th of October 1823, the son of a solicitor. After taking his degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, he entered his father’s office, eventually becoming a partner. In 1859 he abandoned the law and left Birmingham to live near London. He contributed articles on literary, scientific and other subjects to various magazines, but from 1874 devoted himself almost entirely to Shakespearian literature. His first work in this field had been an exposure of the manipulations of John Payne Collier, entitled The Shakespeare Fabrications (1859); his work as a commentator began with The Still Lion (1874), enlarged in the following year into Shakespeare Hermeneutics. In this book many of the then existing difficulties of Shakespeare’s text were explained. In the same year (1875) he published the Centurie of Prayse, a collection of references to Shakespeare and his works between 1592 and 1692. His Shakespeare: the Man and the Book was published in 1877-1881; he also wrote Shakespeare’s Bones (1882), in which he suggested the disinterment of Shakespeare’s bones and an examination of his skull. This suggestion, though not due to vulgar curiosity, was regarded, however, by public opinion as sacrilegious. He died on the 26th of September 1886, at Ilford, Essex. Although Ingleby’s reputation now rests solely on his works on Shakespeare, he wrote on many other subjects. He was the author of hand-books on metaphysic and logic, and made some contributions to the study of natural science. He was at one time vice-president of the New Shakspere Society, and one of the original trustees of the “Birthplace.”
INGLEFIELD, SIR EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1820-1894), British admiral and explorer, was born at Cheltenham, on the 27th of March 1820, and educated at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth. His father was Rear-Admiral Samuel Hood Inglefield (1783-1848), and his grandfather Captain John Nicholson Inglefield (1748-1828), who served with Lord Hood against the French. The boy went to sea when fourteen, took part in the naval operations on the Syrian Coast in 1840, and in 1845 was promoted to the rank of commander for gallant conduct at Obligado. In 1852 he commanded Lady Franklin’s yacht “Isabel” on her cruise to Smith Sound, and his narrative of the expedition was published under the title of A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin (1853). He received the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society on his return and was given command of the “Phoenix,” in which he made three trips to the Arctic, bringing home part of the Belcher Arctic expedition in 1854. In that year he was again sent out on the last attempt made by the Admirally to find Sir John Franklin.
In the Crimean War Captain Inglefield took part in the siege