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of Sevastopol. He was knighted in 1877, and nominated a Knight Commander of the Bath ten years later. He was promoted admiral in 1879. Besides being an excellent marine artist, he was the inventor of the hydraulic steering gear and the Inglefield anchor. He died on the 5th of September 1894. His son, Captain Edward Fitzmaurice Inglefield (b. 1861), became secretary of Lloyds in 1906. Sir Edward Inglefield's brother, Rear-Admiral V. O. Inglefield, was the father of Rear-Admiral Frederick Samuel Inglefield (b. 1854), director of naval intelligence in 1902–1904, and of two other sons distinguished as soldiers.

INGLE-NOOK (from Lat. igniculus, dim. of ignis, fire), a corner or seat by the fireside, within the chimney-breast. The open Tudor or Jacobean fire-place was often wide enough to admit of a wooden settle being placed at each end of the embrasure of which it occupied the centre, and yet far enough away not to be inconveniently hot. This was one of the means by which the builder sought to avoid the draughts which must have been extremely frequent in old houses. English literature is full of references, appreciatory or regretful, to the cosy ingle-nook that was killed by the adoption of small grates. Modern English and American architects are, however, fond of devising them in houses designed on ancient models, and owners of old buildings frequently remove the modern grates and restore the original arrangement.

INGLIS, SIR JOHN EARDLEY WILMOT (1814–1862), British major-general, was born in Nova Scotia on the 15th of November 1814. His father was the third, and his grandfather the first, bishop of that colony. In 1833 he joined the 32nd Foot, in which all his regimental service was passed. In 1837 he saw active service in Canada, and in 1848–1849 in the Punjab, being in command at the storming of Mooltan and at the battle of Gujrat. In 1857, on the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny, he was in command of his regiment at Lucknow. Sir Henry Lawrence being mortally wounded during the siege of the residency, Inglis took command of the garrison, and maintained a successful defence for 87 days against an overwhelming force, He was promoted to major-general and made K.C.B. After further active service in India, he was, in 1860, given command of the British troops in the Ionian Islands. He died at Hamburg on the 27th of September 1862.

INGLIS, SIR WILLIAM (1764–1835), British soldier, was born in 1764, a member of an old Roxburghshire family. He entered the army in 1781. After ten years in America he served in Flanders, and in 1796 took part in the capture of St Lucia. In 1809 he commanded a brigade in the Peninsula, taking part in the battle of Busaco (1810) and the first siege of Badajoz. At Albuera his regiment, the 57th, occupied a most important position, and was exposed to a deadly fire. “ Die hard! Fifty-Seventh,” cried Inglis, " Die hard! ” The regiment's answer has gone down to history. Out of a total strength of 579, 23 officers and 415 rank and file were killed and wounded. Inglis himself was wounded. On recovering, he saw further Peninsular service. In two engagements his horse was shot under him. His services were rewarded by the thanks of parliament and in 1825 he became lieutenant-general, and was made a K.C.B. After holding the governorships of Kinsale and Cork, he was, in 1830, appointed colonel of the 57th. He died at Ramsgate on the 29th of November 1835.

INGOLSTADT, a fortified town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the left bank of the Danube at its confidence with the Schutter, 52 m. north of Munich, at the junction of the main lines of railway, Munich, Bamberg and Regensburg-Augsburg. Pop. (1900) 22,207. The principal buildings are the old palace of the dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, now used as an arsenal; the new palace on the Danube; the remains of the earliest jesuits' college in Germany, founded in 1555; the former university buildings, now a school; the theatre; the large Gothic Frauenkirche, founded in 1425, with two massive towers, containing several interesting monuments, among them the tomb of Dr Eck, Luther's opponent; the Franciscan convent and nunnery; and several other churches and hospitals. Ingolstadt possesses several technical and other schools. In 1472 a university was founded in the town by the Bavarian duke, Louis the Rich, which at the end of the 16th century was attended by 4000 students. In 1800 it was removed to Landshut, whence it was transferred to Munich in 1826. Its newer public buildings include an Evangelical church, a civil hospital, an arsenal and an orphanage. The industries are cannon-founding, manufacture of gunpowder and cloth, and brewing.

Ingolstadt, known as Aureatum or Chrysopolis, was a royal villa in the beginning of the 9th century, and received its charter of civic incorporation before 1255. After that date it grew in importance, and became the capital of a dukedom which merged in that of Bavaria-Munich. The fortifications, erected in 1539, were put to the test during the contests of the Reformation period and in the Thirty Years' War. Gustavus Adolphus vainly besieged Ingolstadt in 1632, when Tilly, to whom there is a monument in the Frauenkirche, lay mortally wounded within the walls. In the War of the Spanish Succession it was besieged by the margrave of Baden in 1704. In 1743 it was surrendered by the French to the Austrians, and in 1800, after three months siege, the French, under General Moreau, took the town, and dismantled the fortifications. They were rebuilt on a much larger scale under King Louis I., and since 1870 Ingolstadt has ranked as a fortress of the first class. In 1872 even more important fortifications were constructed, which include têtes-de-pont with round towers of massive masonry, and the redoubt Tilly on the right bank of the river.

See Gerstner, Geschichte der Stadt Ingolstadt (Munich, 1853); and Prantl, Geschichte der Ludwig Maximilians Universität (Munich, 1872).

INGOT, originally a mould for the casting of metals, but now a mass of metal cast in a mould, and particularly the small bars of the precious metals, cast in the shape of an oblong brick or wedge with slightly sloping sides, in which form gold and silver are handled as bullion at the Bank of England and the Mint. ' Ingots of varying sizes and shapes are cast of other metals, and “ ingot-steel ” and “ ingot-iron ” are technical terms in the manufacture of iron and steel (see Iron and Steel). The word is obscure in origin. It occurs in Chaucer (“ The Canon's Yeoman's Tale ”) as a term of alchemy, in the original sense of a mould for casting metal, and, as the New English Dictionary points out, an English origin for such a term is unlikely. It may, however, be derived from in and the O. Eng. géotrin to pour; cf. Ger. giessen and Einguss, a mould. The Fr. lingot, with the second English meaning only, has been taken as the origin of “ ingot ” and derived from the Lat. lingua, tongue—with a supposed reference to the shape. This derivation is wrong, and French etymologists have now accepted the English origin for the word, lingot having coalesced from l'ingot.

INGRAM, JAMES (1774–1850), English antiquarian and Anglo-Saxon scholar, was born near Salisbury on the 21st of December 1774. He was educated at Warminster and Winchester schools and at Trinity College, Oxford, of which he became a fellow in 1803. From 1803 to 1808 he was Rawlinsonian professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, and in 1824 was made President of Trinity College and D.D. His time, however, was principally spent in antiquarian research, and especially in the study of Anglo-Saxon, in which field he was the pre-eminent scholar of his time. He published in 1823 an edition of the Saxon Chronicle. His other works include admirable Memorials of Oxford (1832–1837), and The Church in the Middle Centuries (1842). He died on the 5th of September 1850.

INGRAM, JOHN KELLS (1823–1907), Irish scholar and economist, was born in Co. Donegal, Ireland, on the 7th of July 1823. Educated at Newry School and Trinity College, Dublin, he was elected a fellow of his college in 1846. He held the professorship of Oratory and English Literature in Dublin University from 1852 to 1866, when he became regius professor of Greek. In 1879 he was appointed librarian. Ingram was remarkable for his versatility. In his undergraduate days he had written the well-known poem “ Who fears to speak of Ninety-eight? ”

and his Sonnets and other Poems (1900) reveal the