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INNOCENT V. (Pierre de Champagni or de Tarentaise) pope from the ZISI of January to the 22nd of June 1276, was born about 1225 in Savoy and entered the Dominican order at an early age. He studied theology under Thomas Aquinas, Albertus Magnus and Bonaventura, and in 1262 was elected provincial of his order in France. He was made archbishop of Lyons in 1271; cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, and grand penitentiary in 1275; and, partly through the influence of Charles of Anjou, was elected to succeed Gregory X. As pope he established peace between the republics of Lucca and Pisa, and confirmed Charles of Anjou in his office of imperial vicar of Tuscany. He was seeking to carry out the Lyons agreement with the Eastern Church when he died., His successor was Adrian V. 111nocent V., before he became pope, prepared, in conjunction with Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, a rule of studies for his order, which was accepted in June 1259. He was the author of several works in philosophy, theology and canon law, including commentaries on the Scriptures and on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, and is sometimes referred to as famosissimus doctor. He preached the funeral sermon at Lyons over St Bonaventura. His bulls are in the Turin collection (1359)-

See F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 5, trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); A. Potthast, Regesta pontif. Roman. vol. ii. (Berlin, 1875); E. Bourgeois, Le Bienheurenx Innocent V (Paris, 1899); ]. E. Borel, Notice biogr. sur Pierre de Tarenlaisc (Chambéry, 1890); P. ]. Béthaz, Pierre des Cours de la Salle, pope sous le nom Innocent V (Augustae, 1891); L. Carboni, De Innocentio V. Romano pontifice (1894). (C. H. HA.) Ixxocnxr VI. (Etienne Aubert), pope from the 18th of December 1352 to the 12th of September 1362, was born at Mons in Limousin. He became professor of civil law at Toulouse and subsequently chief judge of the city. Having taken orders, he was raised to the see of Noyon and translated in 1340 to that of Clermont. In 1342 he was made cardinal-priest of Sti Giovanni e Paolo, and ten years later cardinal-bishop, of Ostia and Velletri, grand penitentiary, and administrator of the bishopric of Avignon. On the death of Clement VI., the cardinals made a solemn agreement imposing obligations, mainly in favour of the college as a whole, on whichever of their number should be elected pope. Aubert was one of the minority who signed the agreement with the reservation that in so doing he would not violate any law, and was elected pope on this understanding; not long after his accession he declared the agreement null and void, as infringing the divinely-bestowed power of the papacy. Innocent was one of the best Avignon popes and filled with reforming zeal; he revoked the reservations and commendations of his predecessor and prohibited pluralities; urged upon the higher clergy the duty of residence in their sees, and diminished the luxury of the papal court. Largely through the influence of Petrarch. whom he called to Avignon, he released Cola di Rienzo, who had been sent a prisoner in August 1352 from Prague to Avignon, and used the latter to assist Cardinal Albornoz, vicar general of the States of the Church, in tranquillizing Italy and restoring the papal power at Rome. Innocent caused Charles IV. to be crowned emperor at Rome in 1355, but protested against the famous “Golden Bull ” of the following year, which prohibited papal interference in German royal elections. He renewed the ban against Peter the Cruel of Castile, and interfered in vain against Peter IV. of Aragon. He made peace between Venice and Genoa, and in 1560 arranged the treaty of Bretigny between France and England. In the last years of his pontihcate he was busied with preparations for a crusade and for the reunion of Christendom, and sent to Constantinople the celebrated Carrnelite monk, Peter Thomas, to negotiate with the claimants to the Greek throne. He instituted in 1354 the festival of the Holy Lance. Innocent was a strong and earnest man of monastic temperament, but not altogether free from nepotism. He was succeeded by Urban V.

The chief sources for the life of Innocent VI. are in Baluzius, Vittnf Pap. .»l1'euion. vol. i. (Par-i<, 1693); Magnzliri fillllll/'l'! Komannnz, vol. iv. (Turin, 1859); lf. /eruinslcy, Exterbta ¢'.'reg1'51r1'5 C[('IlIt'lIfl-A' VI. ef Illtltiféfllflili VI. (lnusliruck, 1885). See also l, . Pa: tor llix/0r}'¢{f/lit'1'U{>C5, vol. i. trans. by I". l. Axitrobus (Loudoii, 1899); F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 6, trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900~1902); D. Cerri, Innoeenzo Papa VI (Turin, 1813); ]. B. Christophe, Histoire de la papaulé pendant le XIV” siecle, vol. 2 (Parls, 1853); M. Souchon, Die Papstwahlen (Brunswick, 1888); G. Daumet, Innocent VI et Blanche de Bourbon (Paris, 1899); E. Werunsky, Gesoh. Kaiser Karls IV. (Innsbruck, 1892). There is an excellent article by M. Naumann in Hauck's Realencyklopaldie, 3rd ed. (C. H. HA.) INNQCENT VII. (Cosimo dei Migliorati), pope from the 17th of October 1404 to the 6th of November 1406, was born of middle class parentage at Sulmona in the Abruzzi in 1339. On account of his knowledge of civil and canon law, he was made papal vice-chamberlain and archbishop of Ravenna by Urban VI., and appointed by Boniface IX. cardinal priest of Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, bishop of Bologna, and papal legate to England. He was unanimously chosen to succeed Boniface, after each of the cardinals had solemnly bound himself to employ all lawful means for the restoration of the ehurch's unity in the event of his election, and even, if necessary, to resign the papal dignity. The election was opposed at Rome by a considerable party, but peace was maintained by the aid of Ladislaus of Naples, in return for which Innocent made a promise, inconsistent with his- previous oath, not to come to terms with the antipope Benedict XIII., except on condition that he should recognize the claims of Ladislaus to Naples. Innocent issued at the close of 1404 a summons for a general council to heal the schism, and it was not the pope's fault that the council never assembled, for the Romans rose in arms to secure an extension of their liberties, and finally maddened by the murder of some of their leaders by the pope's nephew, Ludovico dei Migliorati, they compelled Innocent to take refuge at Viterbo (6th of August 1405). The Romans, recognizing later the pope's innocence of the outrage, made their submission to him in January 1406. He returned to Rome in March, and, by bull of the 1st of September, restored the city's decayed university. Innocent was extolled by contemporaries as a lover of peace and honesty, but he was without energy, guilty of nepotism, and showed no favour to the proposal that he as well as the antipope should resign. He died on the 6th of November 1406 and was succeeded by Gregory XII.

See L. Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. i., trans. by F. I. Antr bus (London, 1899); M. Creighton, History oft/ie Papaoy, vol. i. (London, 1899); N. Valois, La France et le grand, sohisrne d'ocoident (Paris, 1896-1902); Louis Gayet, Le Grand Schisme doccident (Paris, 1898); ]. Loserth, Gesoliichte des sprlteren Zllittelalters (1903); Theodorici de Nyem, De sehismate libri tres, ed. by G. Erler (Leipzig, 1890); K. I. von Hefele, Conciliengesehiclzate, Bd. 6, 2nd ed.; ]. von Haller, Papsttnm u. Kirolwnreforni (Berlin, 1903). (C. H. HA.) INNOCENT VIII. (Giovanni Battista Cibo), pope from the 29th of August 1484 to the 25th of July 1492, successor of Sixtus IV., was born at Genoa (1432), the son of Arano Cibo, who under Calixtus III. had been a senator of Rome. His youth, spent at the Neapolitan court, was far from blameless, and it is not certain that he was married to the mother of his numerous family. He later took orders, and, through the favour of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother of Nicholas V., obtained from Paul II. the bishopric of Savona. Sixtus IV. translated him to the see of Molfetta, and in 1473 created him cardinal-priest of Sta Balbina, subsequently of Sta Cecilia. As pope, he addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the infidels, and concluded in 1489 a treaty with Bayezid II., agreeing in consideration of an annual payment of 40,000 ducats and the gift of the Holy Lance, to detain the sultan's fugitive brother lem in closing conhnement in the Vatican. Innocent excommuniczited and deposed Ferdinand, king of Naples, by bull of the 11th of September 1489, for refusal to pay the papal dues, and gave his kingdom to Charles VIII. of France, but in 1492 restored Ferdinand to favour. He declared (1486) Henry VII. to be lawful king of England by the threefold right of conquest, inheritance and popular choice, and approved his marriage with Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV. Innocent, like his predecessor, hated heresy. and in the bull Summit 1les1'flc1'a;f/at (5th of December 1484) he instigated very severe

measures agaiiist magicians and pitches in Gcrinany; he