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582
INNOCENT (POPES)


prohibited (1486) on pain of excommunication the reading of the propositions of Pico della Mirandola; he appointed (1487) T. Torquemada to be grand inquisitor of Spain; and he offered plenary indulgence to all who would engage in a crusade against the Waldenses. He took the first steps towards the canonization of Queen Margaret of Scotland, and sent missionaries under Portuguese auspices to the Congo. An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of “ Catholic Majesty.” Innocent was genial, skilled in flattery, and popular with the Romans, but he lacked talent and relied on the stronger will of Cardinal della Rovere, afterwards Julius II. His Curia was notoriously corrupt, and he himself openly practised nepotism in favour of his children, concerning whom the epigram is quoted: “ Octo nocens pueros genuit, totidemque puellas:—Hunc merito poterit dicere Roma patrem." Thus he gave to his undeserving son Franceschetto several towns near Rome and married him to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici. Innocent died on the 25th of luly 1492, and was succeeded by Alexander VI. The sources for the life of Innocent VIII. are to be found in L. Muratori, Rerum Italiearum Scriptores, vol. 3, and in Raynaldus, a. 1484-1492. See also L. Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. 5, trans. by F. I. Antrobus London 18 8 ~ M. Crei ht n isto (. 9). go, H fyvf

the Papacy, vol. 4 (London, 1901); F. Gre orovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 7, trans. by Mrs. G. Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); T. Hagen, Die Papstwahlen von 1484 14. I4Q2 (Brizen, 1885); S. Riezler, Die Hexenpfozesse (1896); G. Viani, Memorie della famiglia Cybo (Pisa, 1808);F. Serdonati, Vita e fatti d'Imiocenzo V111. (Minn, 1829). (C. H. HA.)

INNOCENT IX. (Giovanni Antonio Fachinetti) was born in 1519. He hlled the offices of apostolic vicar of Avignon, legate at the council of Trent, nuncio to Venice, and president of the Inquisition. He became cardinal in 1583; and under the invalid Gregory XIV. assumed almost the entire conduct of affairs. His election to the papacy, on the 29th of October 1 591, was brought about by Philip II., who profited little by it, however, inasmuch as Innocent soon succumbed to age and feebleness, dying on the 30th of December 1591. See Ciaconius, Vitae el res gestae summorum Pontif. Rom. (Rome, 160I-1602); Cicarella, continua tor of Platina, De Vitis Ponlzff. Rom. (both contemporaries of Innocent); Ranke, Popes (Eng. trans., Austin), ii. 233 sq. (all brief accounts). (T. F. C.) INNOCENT X. (Giovanni Battista Pamfali) was born in Rome on the 6th of May 1574, served successively as auditor of the Rota, nuncio to Naples, legate apostolic to Spain, was made cardinal in 1627, and succeeded Urban VIII. as pope on the 15th of September 1644. Throughout his pontificate Innocent was completely dominated by his sister-in-law, Donna Olimpia lIaidalchini, a woman of masculine spirit. There is no reason to credit the scandalous reports of an illicit attachment. Nevertheless, the influence of Donna Olimpia was baneful; and she made herself thoroughly detested for her inordinate ambition and rapacity. Urban VIII. had been French in his sympathies; but the papacy now shifted to the side of the Habsburgs, and there remained for nearly fifty years. Evidences of the change were numerous: Innocent promoted pro-Spanish cardinals; attacked the Barberini, protégés of Mazarin, and sequestered their possessions; aided in quieting an insurrection in Naples, fomented by the duke of Guise; and refused to recognize the independence of Portugal, then at war with Spain. As a reward he obtained from Spain and Naples the recognition of ecclesiastical immunity. In 1649 Castro, which Urban VIII. had failed to take, was wrested from the Farnese and annexed to the Papal States. The most worthy efforts of Innocent were directed to the reform of monastic discipline (1652). His condemnation of lansenism (1653) was met with the denial of papal infallibility in matters offart, and the controversy entered upon a new phase (see JANSENISM). Although the pontificate of Innocent witnessed the conversion of many Protestant princes, the most notable being Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless suffered a perceptible decline in prestige; it counted for little in the negotiations at Münster, and its solemn protest against the peace of Westphalia was entirely ignored. Innocent died on the 7th of January 1655, and was succeeded by Alexander VII.

For contemporary lives of Innocent see Oldoin, continua tor of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontif". Rom.; and Palazzi, Gesta Pontij. Rom. (Venice, 1687»-1688) iv. 570 sqq.; Ciampi's Innac. X. Pamfili, el la sua Corte (Rome, 1878), gives a very full account of the period. Gualdus' (pseud. of Gregorio Leti; v. bibliog. note, art. “ SIXTUS V. ) Vita de Donna Olimpia Maidalchina (1666) is gossipy and untrustworthy; Capranica's Donna Olympia Pamali (Milan, 1875, 3rd ed.) is fanciful and historically of no value. See also Ranke, Popes (Eng. trans., Austin), iii. 40 sqq.; v. Reumont, Gesch. der Stadt Rom. iii. 2, p. 623 sqq.; Brosch, Gesch. des Kirehenstaates (1880) i. 409 sqq.; and the extended bibliography in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, s.v. “ Innocenz X." (T. F. C.) INNOCENT XI. (Benedetto Odescalchi), pope from 1676 to 1689, was born at Como on the 16th of May 1611. He studied law in Rome and Naples, entered the Curia under Urban VIII. (his alleged military service seems to be questionable), and became successively protonotary, president of the Apostolic Chamber, governor of Macerate and commissary of Ancona.-Innocent X. made him a cardinal (1647), legate to Ferrara, and, in 1650, bishop of Novara. His simple and blameless life, his conscientious discharge of duty, and his devotion to the needs of the poor had won for him such a name that, despite the opposition of France, he was chosen to succeed Clement X. on the 21st of September 1676. He at once applied himself to moral and administrative reform; declared against ncpotism, introduced economy, abolished sinecures, wiped out the deficit (at the same time reducing rents), closed the gaming-houses, and issued a number of sumptuary ordinances. He held monks strictly to the performance of their vows; took care to satisfy himself of the fitness of candidates for bishoprics; enjoined regular catechetical instruction, greater simplicity in preaching, and greater reverence in worship. The moral teaching of the Jesuits incurred his condemnation (1679) (see LIGUORI), an act which the society never forgave, and which it partially revenged by forcing, through the Inquisition, the condemnation of the quietistic doctrines of Molinos (1687), for which Innocent entertained some sympathy (see M0L1Nos).

The pontificate of Innocent fell within an important period in European politics, and he himself played no insignificant role. His protest against Louis XIV.'s extended claim to regalian rights called forth the famous Declaration of Gallican Liberties by a subservient French synod under the lead of Bossuet (1682), which the pope met by refusing to conhrm Louis's clerical appointments. His determination to restrict the ambassadorial right of asylum, which had been grossly abused, was resented by Louis, who defied him in his own capital, seized the papal territory of Avignon, and talked loudly of a schism, without, however, shaking the pope in his resolution. The preponderance of France Innocent regarded as a menace to Europe. He opposed Louis's candidate for the electorate of Cologne (1688), approved the League of Augsburg, acquiesced in the designs of the Protestant William of Orange, even in his supplanting James II., whom, although a Roman Catholic, he distrusted as a tool of Louis. The great object of Innocent's desire was the repulse of the Turks, and his unwearying efforts to that end entitled him to share in the glory of relieving Vienna (1683).

Innocent died on the 12th of August 1689, lamented by his subjects. His character and life were such as to suggest the propriety of canonization, but hostile influences have defeated every move in that direction.

The life of Innocent has been frequently written. See Guarnacci, Vitae et res estae Pontif. Rom. (Rome, 1751), i. IOS sqq.; Palazzi, Gesta Pantry? Rom. (Venice, 1690); also the lives by Albrizzi (Rome, 1695); Buonamiei (Rome, 1776); and Immich (Berlin, 1900). Particular phases of Innocent's activity have been treated by Michaud, Louis XI V. et Inno»:.XI.(Paris,1882 sqq., 4vols.); Dubruel, La Correspond .... du Card. Carlo Pio, &c. (see Rev. des quest. hisl. lxxv. (1904) 602 sqq.); and Gerin, in Rev. des uest. hist., 1876, 1878, 1886. For correspondence of Innocent see Colombo, Notiziie biogr. e lettere di P. Innoc. XI. (Turin, 1878); and Berthier, Innoc. PP. XI. Epp. ad Principes (Rome, 1890 sqq.). An extended bibliography may be found in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, s.v.

“ Innocenz XI." (T. F. C.)