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894
ITALIAN LANGUAGE


“ Italianity " has taken place; a third of more dubious origin -has been indicated for Venice, C. 1); see Arch. ii., 445. A negative characteristic for Abruzzan is the absence of the change in the third syllable of the combinations pl. bl, ji (into kj, j-, 5) and the reason seems evident. Here thepj, bj and H themselves appear to be modern or of recent reduction-the ancient formulae sometimes occurring intact (as in the Bergamasc for Upper Italy), e.g. planje and pranje alongside of pizinje, piagnere, branghe alongside of bianghc, bianco (Fr. blanc), jinme and frume alongside fiume, flume. To the south of the Abruzzi begins and in the Abruzzi grows prominent that contrast in regard to the formulae alt ald (resolved in the Neapolitan and Sicilian into aut, &c., just as in the Piedmontese, &c.), by which the types aldare, altare, and callc, caldo, are reached? For the rest, when the condition and Connexions of the vowel system still retained by so large a proportion of the dialects of the eastern versant of the Neapolitan Apennines, and the difference which exists in regard to the preservation of the unaccented vowels between the Ligurian and the Gallo-Italic forms of speech on the other versant of the northern Apennines, are considered, one cannot fail to see how much justice there is in the longitudinal or Apenninian partition of the Italian dialects indicated by Dante.-But, to continue, in the Basilicata, which drains into the Gulf of Taranto, and may be said to lie within the Apennines, not only is the elision of final unaccented vowels a prevailing characteristic; there are also frequent elisions of the unaccented vowels within the word. Thus at Matera: sintenn la femn chessa 06s, sentendo la femina questa cosa; dispnil, disperata; at Saponara di Grumento: uomnn scilrati, uomini scellerati; mnetta, vendetta.-But even if We return to the Mediterranean versant and, leaving the Sicilian type of the Calabrias, retrace our steps till we pass into the Neapolitan pure and simple, we find that even in Naples the unaccented final vowels behave badly, the labial turning to § (biellg, bello) and even the a (bella) being greatly weakened. And here occurs a Palaeo-Italic instance which is worth mention: while Latin was accustomed to drop the u of its nominative only in presence of r (gener from *generu-s, vir from *vir-u-s; cf. the Tuscan or Italian apocopated forms véner = vénere,1/enner = vennero, &c.), Oscan and U mbrian go much farther: Oscan, hurz = *hort-u-s, Lat. hortus; Umbr. pihaz, piatus; emps, emptus, &c. In Umbrian' inscriptions we find u alternating with the a of the nom. sing. fem. and plur. neut. In complete contrast with the Sicilian vocalism is the Neapolitan e for unaccented and particularly final i of the Latin and Neo-Latin or Italian phases (e.g. viene, vieni; cf. infra), to say nothing further of the regular diphthongization, within certain limits, of accented e or o in position (apiertg, aperto, fem. aperta; muortg, morto, fem. morta, &c.).-In the quasi-morphological domain it is to be noted how the Siculo-Calabrian u for the ancient 5 and 12, and the Siculo-Calabrian i for the ancient é, 'i, are also still found in the Neapolitan, and, in particular, that they alternate with o and e in a manner that is determined by the difference of termination. Thus cosetore, cucitore, pl. coselure (i.e. coseturi, the -i passing into e in keeping with the Neapolitan characteristic already mentioned); fussy, Ital. rosso, -i; rossa ~gz, Ital. rossa -e; noée, noce, pl. nuce; credc, io credo; cride (*cridi), tu credi; crede, egli crede; nigrg, but negra.

Passing now to a cursory mention of purely morphological phenomena, we begin with that form which is referred to the Latin pluperfect (see A. I, B. 2), but which here too performs the functions of the conditional. Examples from the living dialects of (I) Calabria Citeriore are faceru, farei (Castrovillari); tu te la collerre, tu te l'acolleresti (Cosenza); Faééettéra, Yaccetterebbe (Grimaldi); and from those of (2) the Abruzzi, vulér', vorrei (Castelli); dére, darei (Atessa); candére, canterei. For the dialects of the Abruzzi, we can check our observations by examples from the oldest chronicle of Aquila, as non habéra lassato, non avrebbe lasciato (str. 180) (cf. negara, Ital. negherei, in old MS. of the Marches). There are some interesting remains (more or less corrupted both n form and usage) of ancient consonantal terminations which ve not yet been sufficiently studied: s' incaricaviti, s' incaricav, -abat (Basilicata, Senise); ebbili, ebbe (ib.); aviadi, aveva (Calabria, Grimaldi); arrivaud-i, arrivo (ib.). The last example also gives the -au of the 3rd pers. sing. perf. of the first con'ugation, which still occurs in Sicily and between the horns of the bieapolitan mainland. In the Abruzzi (and in the Ascolan district) the 3rd person of the plural is in process of disappearing (the -no having fallen away and the preceding vowel being obscured), and its function is assumed by the 3rd person singular; cf. C. L3 The explanation of the Neavowel change by which the formula Q-u became And, still in the same dialect, in an example like gréjtg, Creta, the ej seems perhaps to be recent, for the reason that another é, derived from- an original é (Lat. é), is treated in the same way (péjte, piede, &c.). As to examples from Agnone like puole, palo, there still exists a plural pjéle which points to the phase *pal0.

2 We should here mention that callu is also found in the Vocabolario Siciliano, and further occurs in Capitanata.

“This is derived in reality from the Latin termination -unt, which is reduced phonetically to -u, a phenomenon not conhned to the Abruzzi; cf. facciu, Ital. fanno, Lat. faciunt, at Norcia; crfisciu, Ital. crescono. Lat. cfescunt, &c., at Rieti. And examples are also to be found in ancient Tuscan.

politan forms songhc, io sono, essi sono, donghg, io do, stonghg, io sto, as also of the enclitic of the 2nd person plural which exists, e.g. in the Sicil.a11'issivu, Neap. at/istevg, aveste, has been correctly iven more than once. It may be remarked in conclusion that this%eo-Latin region keeps company with the Rumanian in maintaining in large, -use the -ora derived from the ancient neuter plurals of the type tempora; Sicil. jécura, giuochi; Calabr. nidura, Abruzz. nidgre, nidi, Neap. éntola (=-1'a), orti, Capitanata dcurg, aghi, Apulian acéddere (Tarantine acéddirc), uccelli, &c. It is in this region, and more particularly in Capua, that we can trace the first appearance of what can definitely be called Italian, as shown in a Latin legal document of the year 960 (Sao co kclle terre per kelle #ni qui ki contene lrenta anni le posselte parte Sancti Bened-ictri, Ital. “ so che quelle terre per quei confini che qui contiene trent 'anni le possedette la parte di S. Benedetto ”), and belongs more precisely to Capua. The so-called Carta Rossanese (Calabria), written in a mixture of Latin and vulgar tongue, belongs to the first decades of the 12th century; while a document of Fondi (Campania) in the vulgar tongue goes back to the last decades of the same century. Neapolitan documents do not become abundant till the 14th century. The same if true) of ktlhe Abruzzi and of Apulia; in the case of the latter the ate s on perhaps be put even later.

4. Dialects of Umbria, the Marches and the Province of Rome.-The phenomena characteristic of the Gallo-Italian dialects can be traced in the northern Marches in the dialects not only of the provinces of Pesaro and Urbino (Arch. glotl. ii. 444), where we note also the constant dropping of the final vowels, strong elisions of accented and unaccented vowels, the suffix -arfin becoming -ér, &c., but also as far as Ancona and beyond. As in Ancona, the double consonants are reduced to single ones; there are strong elisions (breta, Ital. berretta; blin, Ital. bellino; jignrte, Ital. “ figurati "; vermne, Ital. verme, “ vermine, " &c.); the -k- becomes g; the S, § . At Iesi -t- and -k- become d and g, and the g is also found at Fabriano, though here it is modified in the Southern fashion (spia = spiga, Ital. spica). Examples are also found of the dropping of -d- rimary between vowels: Pesaran wicca, Ital. radica; Fabr. pea, Itafi piede, which are noteworthy in that they indicate an isolated Gallo-Italian phenomenon, which is further traceable in Umbria (peacchia = ped-, Ital. orma; niica and mice, Ital. radice; tmibio, Ital. torbido; ffdcio, Ital. fracido; at Rieti also the dropping of the -d- is normal: veo, Ital. vedo; jicitu, Ital. fidato, &c.; and here too is found the drop ing of initial d for syntactical reasons: énte, Ital. dente, from lu [diinte). According to some scholars of the Marches, the é for a also extends as far as Ancona; and it is certainly continued from the north, though it is. precisely in the territory of the Marches that Gallo-Italian and Abruzzan come into contact. The southern part of the, Marches (the basin of the Tronto), after all, is Abruzzan in character. But the Abruzzan or Southern phenomena in general are widely diffused throughout the 'whole of the region comprising the Marches, Umbria, Latium and Aquila (for the territory oi Aquila, belonging as it does both geogra hically and politically to the Abruzzi, is also attached linguisticalizy to this group), which with regard to certain phenomena includes also that part of Tuscany lying to the south of the southern Ombrone. Further, the Tuscan dialect strictly S0 Called sends into the Marches a few of its characteristics, and thus at Arcevia we have the pronunciation of -6between vowels as § (férmesce, Ital. forbici),4 and Ancona has no. changes of .tonic vowels determined by the final vowel; Again, Umbria and the Sabine territory, and some parts oi the Roman territory, are connected with Tuscany by the phenomenon of -ajo for -ariu (molinajo, Ital. mugnaio, &e.). But, to come to the Abruzzan-Southern phenomena, we should note that the Abruzzan ll for ld extends into the central region (Norcia: calln, caldo; Rome: ariscalla, riscalda; the phenomenon, however, occurs also in Corsica); and the assimilation of nd into nn, and of mb into mm stretches through Umbria, the Marches and Rome, and even crosses from the Roman province into southern Tuscany (Rieti: quanno, quando; Spoleto: comannava, comandava; Assisi: piagnenna, piangendo; Sanseverino Marches: piagnenne, 'mmece, invece (imbece); Fabriano: vennecasse, vendicarsi; Osimo: monno, mondo; Rome: fronna, fronda; piomma, piombo; 'Pitigliano (Tuscany): guanno, piagnenno). It is curious to note, side by side with this phenomenon, in the same districts, that of nd for nn, which we still find and which was more common in the past (ajando, affanno, &c., see Zeitschrift far roman. Philol. xxii. 510). Even the diphthongs of the e and the 0 in position are largely represented. Examples are-at Norcia, tiempi, uacchi, stuortu; Assisi and Fabriano: tiempo;' Orvieto: tiempo, tierra, le tuorte, li torti, and even duonna. The change of prcconsonantal l into r, so frequent throughout- this region, and particularly characteristic of Romefis a phenomenon common to the Aquilan dialect. Similar facts might be adduced in abundance. And it is to be noted that the features common to, Umbro-Roman and the Neapolitan dialects musthave been more numerous in the past, as this was the region where the Tuscan current metithe southern, and by reason of its superior culture gradually gained the 4 [This resolution of -6- by 5, or by a sound very near to § , is, however, a Roman phenomenon, found in some partsof Apulia (Molfettese

lausce, lucc, &c.), and also heard .inparts of Sicily], .;