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elliptical arches, whether square or skew, whether level or sloping in their span, are at once deduced by projection from those of symmetrical circular arches, and the properties of ellipsoidal and ellipticconoidal domes from those of hemispherical and circular-conoidal domes; and the figures of arches fitted to resist the thrust of earth, which is less horizontally than vertically in a certain given ratio, can be deduced by a projection from those of arches fitted to resist the thrust of a liquid, which is of equal intensity, horizontally and vertically.

§ 19. Conditions of Stiffness and Strength.-After the arrangement of the pieces of a structure and the size and figure of their joints or surfaces of contact have been determined so as to fulfil the conditions of stability, -conditions which depend mainly on the position and direction of the resultant or total load on each piece, and the relative magnitude of the loads on the different pieces-the dimensions of each piece singly have to be adjusted so as to fulfil the conditions of stiffness and strength-conditions which depend not only on the absolute magnitude of the load on each piece, and of the resistances by which it is balanced, but also on the mode of distribution of the load over the piece, and of the resistances over the joints. The effect of the pressures applied to a piece, consisting of the load and the supporting resistances, is to force the piece into a state of strain or disfigurement, which increases until the elasticity, or resistance to strain, of the material causes it to exert a stress, or efiort to recover its figure, equal and opposite to the system of applied pressures. The condition of stifness is that the strain or disfigurement shall not be greater than is consistent with the purposes of the structure; and the condition of strength is that the stress shall be within the limits of that which the material can bear with safety against breaking. The ratio in which the utmost stress before breaking exceeds the safe working stress is called the factor of safety, and is determined empirically. It varies from three to twelve for various materials and structures. (See STRENGTH OF l'lATERIALS.)


§ 20. Parts of a Machine: Frame and Mechanism.-The parts of a machine may be distinguished into two principal divisions, -the frame, or fixed parts, and the mechanism, or moving parts. The frame is a structure which supports the pieces of the mechanism, and to a certain extent determines the nature of their motions. The form and arrangement of the pieces of the frame depend u pon the arrangement and the motions of the mechanism; the dimensions of the pieces of the frame required in order to give it stability and strength are determined from the pressures applied to It by means of the mechanism. It appears therefore that in general the mechanism is to be designed first and the frame afterwards, and that the designing of the frame is regulated by the principles of the stability of structures and of the strength and stiffness of materials, -care being taken to adapt the frame to the most severe load which can be thrown upon it at any period of the action of the mechanism. Each independent piece of the mechanism also is a structure, and its dimensions are to be adapted, according to the principles of the strength and stiffness of materials, to the most severe load to which it can be subjected during the action of the machine. § 2I. Definition and Division of the Theory of Machines.-From what has been said in the last section it appears that the department of the art of designing machines which has reference to the stability of the frame and to the stiffness and strength of the frame and mechanism is 21 branch of the art of construction. It is therefore to be separated from the theory of machines, properly speaking, which has reference to the action of machines considered as moving. In the action of a machine the following three things take place:- Firstly, Some natural source of energy communicates motion and force to a piece or pieces of the mechanism, called the receiver of power or prime mover.-Secondly.

The motion and force are- transmitted from the prime mover through the train of mechanism to the working piece or pieces, and during that transmission the motion and force are modified in amount and direction, 'so as to be rendered suitable for the purpose to which they are to be applied.

Thirdly, The working piece or pieces by their motion, or by their motion and force combined, produce some useful effect. Such are the phenomena of the action of a machine, arranged in the order of causation. But in studying or treating of the theory of machines, the order of simplicity is the best; and in this order the first branch of the subject is the modification of motion and force by the train of mechanism; the next is the effect or purlpose of 'the machine; and the last, or most complex, is the action o the prime mover.

The modification of motion and the modification of force take place together, and are connected by certain laws; but In the study of the theory of machines, as well as in that of pure mecha{11§ Sf much advantage has been gained in point of clearness and simplicity by first considering alone the principles of the mod1ficat1 on of motion, which are founded upon what is now known as Kinematics, and afterwards considering the principles of the combined modification of motion and force, which are founded both on geometry and on the laws of dynamics. The separation of kinematics from dynamics is due mainly to G. Monge. Ampére and R. Wlllis. The theory of machines in the present article will be considered under the following heads:-

I. PURE MECHANISM, or APPLIED KINEMATIcs; being the theory of machines considered simply as modifying motion. II. APPLIED DYNAMICS; being the theory of machines considered as modifying both motion and force.


§ 22. Division of the Subject.-Proceeding in the order of simplicity, éheaugject of Pure Mechanism, or Applied Kinematics, may be thus wi e 1-

Division I.-Motion of a point.

Division 2.-Motion of the surface of a fluid. Division 3.-Motion of a rigid solid.

Division 4.-Motions of a pair of connected pieces, or of an “ elementary combination ” in mechanism.

Division 5.-Motions of trains of pieces of mechanism. Division €;7~Motions of segs of morexthan two connected pieces, or o aggregate com Inations.

A point is the boundary of a line, which is the boundary of a surface, which is the boundary of a volume. Points, lines and surfaces have no independent existence, and consequently those divisions of this chapter which relate to their motions are only preliminary to the subsequent dlvislons, which relate to the motions of bodles.

Division I. Motion of a Point.

§ 23. Comparative M otion.-The comparative motion of two points is the relation which exists between their motions, without having regard to their absolute amounts. It consists of two elements, - the velocity ratio, which is the ratio of any two magnitudes bearing to each other the proportions of the respective velocities of the two points at a given instant, and the directional relation, which is the relation borne to each other by the respective directions of the motions of the two points at the same given instant. It is obvious that the motions of a pair of points may be varied in any manner, whether by direct or by lateral deviation, and yet that their comparative motion may remain constant, in consequence of the deviations taking place in the same proportions, in the same directions and at the same instants for both points. Robert Willis (1800-1875) has the merit of having been the first to simplify considerably the theory of puie mechanism, by pointing out that that branch of mechanics relates wholly to comparative motions.

The comparative motion of two points at a given instant is capable of being completely expressed by one of Sir William Hami1ton's Quaternions, -the “ tensor ” expressing the velocity ratio, and the “ versor " the directional relation.

Graphical methods of analysis founded on this way of representing velocity and acceleration were developed by R. H. Smith in'a paper communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1885, and illustrations of the method will be found below. Division 2. Motion of the Surface of a Fluid Mass. § 24. General Principle.-A mass of fluid is used in mechanism to transmit motion and force between two or more movable portions (called pistons or plungers) of the solid envelope or vessel in which the fluid is contained; and, when such transmission is the sole action, or the only appreciable action of the fluid mass, its volume is either absolutely constant, by reason of its temperature and pressure being maintained constant, or not sensibly varied. Let a represent the area of the section of a piston made by a plane perpendicular to its direction of motion, and v its velocity, which is to be considered as positive when outward, and negative when Inward. Then the variation of the cubic contents of the vessel in a unit of time by reason of the motion of one piston is va. The condition that the volume of the fluid mass shall remain unchanged requires that there shall be morethan one piston, and that the velocities and areas of the pistons shall be connected by the equation— .. (1)

§ 25. Comparative Motion of Two Pistons.-If there be but two pistons, whose areas are al and az, and their velocities vt and'v2, their comparative motion is expressed by the equation-U2/7/1 = -Gill/2; (2)

that is to say, their velocities are opposite as to inwardness and outwardncss and inversely proportional to their areas. § 26. Applications: Hydraulic Press: Pneumatic Power-Transmitter.—In the hydraulic press the vessel consists of two cylinders, viz. the pump-barrel and the press-barrel, each having its piston, and of a passage connecting them having a valve opening towards the press-barrel. The action of the enclosed water in transmitting motion takes place during the inward stroke of the pump-plunger, when the above-mentioned valve is open; and at that time the press plunger moves outwards with a velocity which is less than the ipward velocity of the pump-plunger, in the same ratio that the area of the pump-plunger is less than the area of the press-plunger. (See HYDRAULICS.)

In the pneumatic power-transmitter the motion of one piston is