chief interest of studying the fragments of Lucilius consists in the light which they throw on the aims and methods of Horace in the composition of his satires, and, though not to the same extent, of his epistles. They are important also as materials for linguistic study; and they have considerable historical value.
Editions by F. D. Gerlach (1846), L. Müller (1872), C. Lachmann (1876, posthumous), F. Marx (1905); see also L. Müller, Leben und Werke des Lucilius (1876); "Luciliana," by H. A. J. Munro, in the Journal of Philology, vii. (1877); Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, bk. iv. ch. 13; "Luciliana," by A. E. Housman, in Classical Quarterly (April, 1907); C. Cichorius, Untersuchungen zu Lucilius (Berlin, 1908). (W. Y. S.; X.)
LUCILIUS JUNIOR, a friend and correspondent of the younger Seneca, probably the author of Aetna, a poem on the origin of volcanic activity, variously attributed to Virgil, Cornelius Severus (epic poet of the Augustan age) and Manilius. Its composition has been placed as far back as 44 B.C., on the ground that certain works of art, known to have been removed to Rome about that date, are referred to as being at a distance from the city. But as the author appears to have known and made use of the Quaestiones Naturales of Seneca (written A.D. 65), and no mention is made of the great eruption of Vesuvius (A.D. 79), the time of its composition seems to lie between these two dates. In favour of the authorship of Lucilius are the facts that he was a friend of Seneca and acquainted with his writings; that he had for some time held the office of imperial procurator of Sicily, and was thus familiar with the locality; that he was the author of a poem on Sicilian subjects. It is objected that in the 79th letter of Seneca, which is the chief authority on the question, he apparently asks that Lucilius should introduce the hackneyed theme of Aetna merely as an episode in his contemplated poem, not make it the subject of separate treatment. The sources of the Aetna are Posidonius of Apamea, and perhaps the pseudo-Aristotelian De Mundo, while there are many reminiscences of Lucretius. It has come down in a very corrupt state, and its difficulties are increased by the unpoetical nature of the subject, the straining after conciseness, and the obtrusive use of metaphor.
LUCINA, goddess of light, a title given to Juno and Diana as presiding over childbirth and bringing children into the light of the world. The full name is lucina dea, "the light-bringing goddess" (lux, light, hence adj. lucinus). It is also given to Hecate (Tibullus 3. 4. 13), as the bringer of terrible dreams, and is used metaphorically as a synonym for child-birth (Virg. Georg, iii. 60; Ovid, Ars. Amai. iii. 785).
LUCIUS, the name of three popes.
Lucius I., pope for eight months (253–254), spent a short period of his pontificate in exile. He is referred to in several letters of Cyprian (see Epist. lxviii. 5) as having been in agreement with his predecessor Cornelius in preferring the milder view on the question as to how the lapsed penitent should be treated. He is commemorated on the 4th of March. (L. D.*)
Lucius II. (Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso), pope from the 12th of March 1144 to the 15th of February 1145, a Bolognese, successively canon at his native city, cardinal priest of Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, treasurer of the Roman Church, papal legate in Germany for Honorius II., chancellor and librarian under Innocent II., was the successor of Celestine II. His stormy pontificate was marked by the erection of a revolutionary republic at Rome which sought to deprive the pope of his temporal power, and by the recognition of papal suzerainty over Portugal. He was succeeded by Eugenius III.
Lucius III. (Ubaldo Allucingoli), pope from the 1st of September 1181 to the 25th of November 1185, a native of Lucca and a Cistercian monk, named cardinal-priest of Sta Prassede by Innocent II. and cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri by Adrian IV., succeeded Alexander III. He lived at Rome from November 1181 to March 1182, but dissensions in the city compelled him to pass the remainder of his pontificate in exile, mainly at Velletri, Anagni and Verona. He disputed with the emperor Frederick I. the disposal of the territories of the Countess Matilda. In November 1184 he held a synod at Verona which condemned the Cathari, Paterines, Waldensians and Arnoldists, and anathematized all heretics and their abettors. Lucius died in the midst of preparations for a crusade in answer to appeals of Baldwin IV. of Jerusalem. His successor was Urban III.
His letters are in J. P. Migne, Patrol. Lat. vol. 201. Consult J. M. Watterich, Pontif. Roman. Vitae, vol. 2 (Leipzig, 1862); and Jaffé-Wattenbach, Regesta Pontif. Roman. (1885–1888). See J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis Innocenz III. (Bonn, 1893); F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 4, trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1896); P. Scheffer-Boichorst, "Zu den mathildinischen Schenkungen," in Mittheilungen des österreichen Instituts (1888). (C. H. Ha.)
LUCK, a term for good or bad fortune, the unforeseen or unrecognized causes which bring success or failure in any enterprise, particularly used of the result of chances in games of skill or chance (see Probability). The word does not occur in English before the 16th century. It was taken from the Low Ger. luk, a shortened form of geluk, cf. Modern Ger. Glück, happiness, good fortune. The New English Dictionary considers the word to have been introduced from the Low Countries as a gambling term. The ultimate origin is doubtful; it has been connected with the German gelingen, to succeed (cf. Druck, pressure, from dringen), or with locken, to entice.
At Eden Hall in Cumberland, the seat of the Musgrave family, has been long preserved a vessel known as "the luck," supposed to be of Venetian or Byzantine make, and dating from the 10th century. It is a chalice of enamelled glass, and on its safe preservation the fortunes of the Musgrave family are supposed to depend, in accordance with the rhyme:—
"Should this cup either break or fall,
Farewell the luck of Edenhall."
LÜCKE, GOTTFRIED CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH (1791–1855), German theologian, was born on the 24th of August 1791, at Egeln near Magdeburg, where his father was a merchant. He studied theology at Halle and Göttingen. In 1813 he became repetent at Göttingen, and in 1814 he received the degree of doctor in philosophy from Halle; in 1816 he removed to Berlin, where he became licentiate in theology, and qualified as privat-docent. He soon became intimate with Schleiermacher and de Wette, and was associated with them in 1819 in the redaction of the Theologische Zeitschrift. Meanwhile his lectures and publications (among the latter a Grundriss der Neutestamentlichen Hermeneutik, 1816) had brought him into considerable repute, and he was appointed professor extraordinarius in the new university of Bonn in the spring of 1818; in the following autumn he became professor ordinarius. From Bonn, where he had J. C. W. Augusti (1772–1841), J. K. L. Gieseler, and Karl Immanuel Nitzsch for colleagues, he was called in 1827 to Göttingen to succeed K. F. Stäudlin (1761–1826). In that year he helped to found the Theologische Studien und Kritiken, the chief organ of the "mediation" theology (Vermittelungstheologie). At Göttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tübingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.