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MCGIFFERT—MAGGILLIVRAY

was born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, on the 13th of April 1825. He early showed a remarkable aptitude for oratory. At the age of thirteen he delivered a speech at Wexford, .and when four years later he emigrated' to America. he quickly gained a reputation as a writer and public speaker in the city of Boston. He thus attracted the attention of O'Connell, and before he was twenty years of age he returned to London to become parliamentary correspondent of the Freeman's Journal, and shortly afterwards London correspondent of the Nation, to which he also contributed a number of poems. He married in 1847 Mary Theresa Caffry, by whom he had two children. In 1846 he became one of the moving spirits in the “ Young Ireland ” party, and in promoting the objects of that organization he contributed two volumes to the “ Library of Ireland;” On the failure of the movement in 1848 McGee escaped in the disguise of a priest to the United States, -where between 1848 and 1853 he established two newspapers, the New York N ation and the American Celt. His writings at first were exceedingly bitter and anti-English; but as years passed he realized that a greater measure of political freedom was possible under the British constitution than under the American. He had now become well-known as an author, and as a lecturer of unusual ability. In 1857 McGee, driven from the United States by the scurrilous attacks of the extreme Irish revolutionaries, took up his abode in Canada, and was admitted to the bar of the province of Lower Canada in 1861. ' At the general election in 1858 he was returned to parliament as the member for Montreal, and for four years he was regarded as a powerful factor in the house. On the formation of the Sandfield-Macdonald-Sicotte administration in 1862 he accepted the

office of president of the council. When the cabinet was reconstructed a year later the Irish were left without representation, and McGee sought re-election as a member of the opposite party. In 1864 he was appointed minister of agriculture in the administration of Sir E. P. Taché, and he served the country in that capacity until his death. He actively supported the policy of federation and was elected a member of the first Dominion parliament in 1867. On the 7th of April 1868, after having delivered a notable speech in the house, he was shot by an assassin as he was about to enter his house at Ottawa. His utterances against the Fenian invasion are believed to have been the cause of the crime for which P. ]. Whelan was executed. McGee's loss was keenly felt by all classes, and Within a few weeks of his death parliament granted an annuity to his widow and children. McGee had great faith in the future of Canada' as a part of the empire. Speaking at St John, N.B., in 1863, he said: “ There are before the public men of British America at thisimoment but two courses: either to drift with the tide of democracy, or to seize the golden moment andfix for ever the monarchical character of our institutions. I invite every fellow colonist who agrees with me to unite our efforts that we may give our pfovince the aspect of an empire, in order to exercise the influence abroad and at home of a state, and to originate a history which the world will not willingly let die.” Sir Charles Gavan Duffy considered that as a poet McGee was not inferior to Davis, and that as an orator he possessed powers rarer than those of T. F Meagher.

McGee's principal works are: A Popular History of Ireland (2 vols., New York, 1862; 1 vol., London, 1869); Irish Writers of the Seventeenth Century (Dublin, 18 6); Historical Sketches of O'Connell and his Friends (Boston, 1844); iltlemoirs of the Li{e and Conquests gf Art MeMurrogh, King of Leinster (Dublin, 1847; Memoir of C. . Dujy (Dublin, 1849); A History of the Irish Settlers in North America (Boston, 1851); Histor of the Attempts to establish the Protestant Reformation in Irelandy (Boston, 1853); Life of Edward Maginn, Coadjutor Bishop of Derry (New York, 1857); Catholic History of North America (Boston, 1854); Canadian Ballads and Occasional Pieces (New York, 1858); Notes on Federal Governments Past and Present (Montreal, 1865); Speeches and Addresses, chiejly on the Subject oiélthe British American Union (London, 1865); Poems, edited by Mrs . A. Sadleir with introductory memoir (New York, 1869). See Fennings Taylor, The Hon. Thomas D'Arcy McGee (Montreal, 1867); J. K. Foran, Thomas D'Arcy McGee as an Empire, Builder (Ottawa, '19A(;4); H. J. O'C. French, A Sketch of the Life of the Hon. T. D. cGee (Montreal); Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, iv. II6; N. F, Dvin's Irishman in Canada (1887); C. G. Duffy, 'Four I/'ears of Irish History (1883); Alfred Webb, Compendium of Irish. Biography> (Dublin, 1878). ' (A. G. D.)


McGIFFERT, ARTHUR CUSHMAN (1861~), American theologian, was born in Sauquoit, New York, on the 4th of March 1861, the son of a Presbyterian clergyman of Scotch descent. He graduated at Western Reserve College in 1882 and at Union theological seminary in 1885, studied in Germany (especially under Harnack) in 1885-1887, and in Italy and France in 1888, and in that year received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Marburg. He was instructor (1888-1890) and professor (1890-1893) of church history at Lane theological seminary, and in 1893 became Washburn professor of church history in Union theological seminary, succeeding Dr Philip Schaff. His published work, except occasional critical 'studies in philosophy, dealt with church history and the history of dogma. ' His best known publication is a History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age (1897). This book, by its independent criticism and departures from traditionalism, aroused the opposition of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church; though the charges brought against McGiffert were dismissed by the Presbytery of New York, to which they had been referred, a trial for heresy seemed inevitable, and McGiffert, in 1900, retired from the Presbyterian ministry and entered the Congregational Church, although he retained his position in Union theological seminary. Among his other publications are: A Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew (1888); a translation (with introduction and notes) of Eusebius's Church History (1890); and The Apostles' Creed (1902), in which he attempted to prove that the old Roman creed was formulated as a protest against the dualism of Marcion and his denial of the reality .of Jesus? s life on earth. .


MCGILLIVRAY, ALEXANDER (e. 1739-1793), American Indian chief, was born near the site of the present Wetumpka, in Alabama. His father was a Scotch merchant and his mother the daughter of a French officer and an Indian “princess” Through his father's relatives in South Carolina, McGillivray received a good education, but at the age of seventeen, after a short experience as a merchant in Savannah and Pensacola, he returned to the Muscogee Indians, who elected him chief. He retained his connexion with business life as a member of the British irm of Panton, Forbes & Leslie of Pensacola. During the War of Independence, as a colonel in the British army, he incited his followers to attack the western frontiers of Georgia and the Carolinas. Georgia confiscated some of his property, and after the peace of 1783 McGillivray remained hostile. Though still retaining his British commission, he accepted one from Spain, and during the remainder of his life used his influence to prevent American settlement in the south-west. So important was he considered that in 1790 President Washington sent an agent who induced him to visit New York. Here he was persuaded to make peace in consideration of a brigadier-general's commission and payment for the property confiscated by Georgia; and with the warriors who accompanied him he signed a formal treaty of peace and friendship on the 7th of August. He then went back to the Indian country, and remained hostile to the Americans until his death. He was one of the ablest Indian leaders of America and at .one time wielded great power-having 5000 to 10,000 armed followers. In order to serve Indian interests he played off British, Spanish and American interests against one another, but before he died he saw that he was fighting in a losing cause, and, changing his policy, endeavoured to provide for the training of the Muscogees in the white man's civilization. McGillivray was polished in manners, of cultivated intellect, was a shrewd merchant, and a successful speculator; but he had many savage traits, being noted for his treachery, craftiness and love of barbaric display. (W. L. F.)


MACGILLIVRAY, WILLIAM (1796-18 52), Scottish naturalist, was born at Aberdeen on the 25th of January 1796. At King's College, Aberdeen, he graduated in 1815, and also studied medicine, but did not complete the latter course. In 1823 he became assistant to R. Jameson, professor of natural history in Edinburgh University; and in 1831 he, was appointed curator of 'the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh, a post