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that could be produced by any magnetizing force, however great. It has, however, been shown that, if the magnetizing force is carried far enough, the curve always becomes convex to the axis instead of meeting it. The full line shows the result of an experiment in which the magnetizing force was carried up to 585) ¢'i'""~




Aooo I/ '~'g

I "ff

If ~'~Ȣ



1 "~f'<~;.

w00,1 §


0 sooo mow /5000 ia moan

Fig. 18.

but though the force was thus increased ninefold, the induction only reached 19,800, and the ultimate value of the permeability was still as much as 33-9.

Ballistic M ethozl with Y oke.-]. Hopkinson (Phil. T rans., 1885, 176, 4 5 5) introduced a modification of the usual ballistic arrangement which presents the following advantages: (1) very considerable magnetizing forces can be applied with ordinary means; (2) the samples to be tested, having the formxof cylindrical bars, are more easily prepared than rings or wires; (3) the actual induction at any time can be measured, and not only changes of in?, ,

(F duction. On the

C Epi 5 C other hand, a very

A § fs;¢lln§§§ i!l€fff;2;i!l§§ 1=1fzliF?lfzlin;¢lf@»'§ 'fff%;ll:.sill A ' “gh 'wee °f- 3°

..., ., ;=a, ., h m ....., gg ., ,., lz.;= ., ,, .. ti.; ., .. curacyxs not claimed

| ' for the results. Fig.

I, 1 H, 19 shows the appaI

ratus by which the

ends of the bar are

prevented from

exerting any material dernagnetizing force, while the permeance of the magnetic circuit is at the same time increased. A A, called the “ yoke, ” is a block of annealed wrought iron about 18 in. long, 6% in. wide and 2 in. thick, through which is cut a rectangular opening to receive the two magnetizing coils B B. The test bar C C, which slides through holes bored in the yoke, is divided near the middle into two parts, the ends which come into contact being faced true and square. Between the magnetizing coils is a small induction coil D, which is connected with a ballistic galvanometer. The induction coil is carried upon the end of one portion of the test bar, and when this portion is suddenly drawn back the coil slips 05 and is pulled out of the field by an india-rubber spring. This causes a ballistic throw proportional to the induction through the bar at the moment when the two portions were separated. With such an arrangement it is possible to submit the sample to any series of magnetic forces, and to measure its magnetic state at the end. The uncertainty with which the results are aliected depends chiefly upon the imperfect contact between' the bar and the yoke and also between the ends of the divided bar. It is probable that Hopkinson did not attach sufficient importance to the demagnetizing action of the cut (cf. Ewing, Phil. Mag., Sept. 1888, p. 274), and that the values which he assigned to H are consequently somewhat too high. He applied his method with good effect, however, in testing a large number of commercial specimens of iron and steel, the magnetic constants of which are given in a table accompanying his paper. When it is not required to determine the residual magnetization there is no necessity to divide the sample bar, and ballistic tests may be made in the ordinary way-by steps 1 S. Bidwell, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1886, 40, 495. Fm. 19.

or by reversals-the source of error due to the transverse cut thus being avoided. Ewing (Magnetic Induction, § 194) has devised an arrangement in which two similar test bars are placed side by side; each bar is, surrounded by a magnetizing coil, the two coils being connected to give opposite directions of magnetization, and each pair of ends is connected by a short massive block of soft iron having holes bored through it to fit the bars, which are clamped in position by set-screws. Induction coils are Wound on the middle parts of both bars, and are connected in series. With this arrangement it is possible to find the actual value of the magnetizing force, corrected for the effects of joints and other sources of error. Two sets of observations are taken, one when the blocks are fixed at the ends of the bars, and another when they are nearer together, the clear length of the bars between them and of the magnetizing coils being reduced to one-half. If H1 and H2 be the values of 47Tl7l/Z and 47Ti'lL 1 for the 2 2

same induction B, it can be shown that the true magnetizing force is H = H1 - (Hz - H1). The method, though tedious in operation, is very accurate, and is largely employed for determining the magnetic quality of bars intended to serve as standards.

Traction M ethods.-The induction of the magnetization may be measured by observing the force required to draw apart the two portions of a divided rod or ring when held together by their mutual attraction. If a transverse cut is made through a bar whose magnetization is I and the two ends are placed in contact, it can be shown that this force is 27l' 12 dynes per unit of area (Mascart and Ioubert, Electricity and Magnetism, § 322; and if the magnetization of the bar is due to an external field H produced by a magnetizing coil or otherwise, there is an additional force equal to HI. Thus the whole force, when the two portions of the bar are surrounded by a loosely-fitting magnetizing coil, is F=21rI2-{»-HI

expressed as dynes per square centimetre. If each portion of the bar has an independent magnetizing coil wound tightly upon it, wehave further to take into account the force due to the mutual action of the two magnetizing coils, which assists the forces already considered. This is equal to H2 81r per unit of sectional area. In the case supposed therefore the total force per square centimetre is

F=21rI2+HI+§ ¥

(411 +H)”



= 5;-

The equation F =B2/8-lr is often said to express “ Maxwell's law of magnetic traction ” (Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, §§ 642-646). It is, of course, true for permanent magnets, where H = o, since then F = 2'lI'I2; but if the magnetization is due to electric currents, the formula is only applicable in the special case when the mutual action of the two magnets upon one another is supplemented by the electromagnetic attraction between separate magnetizing coils rigidly attached to them? The traction method was first employed by S. Bidwell (Proc. Ray. Soc., 1886, 40, 486), who in 1886 published an account of some experiments in which the relation of magnetization to magnetic field was deduced from observations of the force in grammes weight which just sufhced to tear asunder the two halves of a divided ring electro-magnet when known currents were passing through the coils. He made use of the expression F=Wg=21f12+H1,

where W is the weight in grammes per square centimetre of sectional area, and g is the intensity of gravity which was taken as 981. The term for the attraction between the coils was omitted as negligibly small (see Phil. Mag., 1890, 29, 440). The values assigned to H were calculated from H=2ni/r, and ranged from 3-9 to 585, but inasmuch as no account was taken of any

  • Since in most practicable experiments H' is riegligible in comparison

with BZ, the force may be taken as B'/81r without sensible error.