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demagnetizing action which might be due to the two transverse cuts, it is probable that they are somewhat too high. The results, nevertheless, agree very well with those for annealed wrought iron obtained by other methods. Below is given a. selection from Bidwell's tables, showing corresponding values of magnetizing force, weight supported, magnetization, induction, susceptibility and permeability:-

H. W. 1. B. K., r. 8

3-9 2,210 587 7,390 151-0 1889-1

5-7 31460 735 9.240 128-9 162I~3

10-3 5,400 918 11,550 89-1 1121-4

22'2 3,440 U47 I4-450 5i'7 650'9

40 9,680 1226 15,460 30-7 386-4

115 12,170 1370 17,330 11-9 150-7

208 13,810 1452 18,470 7-o 88-8

362 14,740 1489 19,080 4- 1 52-7

465 15,275 1503 19,420 3'2 4I'8

535 I5»905 1530 19320?'5 33'9

A few months later R. H. M. Bosanquet (Phil. Mag., 1886, relation of tractive force to

Instead of a divided ring he

22, 535) experimented on the

magnetic induction.

2 employed a divided straight bar, , each half of which was provided with a magnetizing coil. The joint was surrounded by an induction coil connected with a ballistic galvanometer, an arrangement which enabled him to make an independent

Q' measurement of the induction at the moment when the two portions of the bar were separated. fi Y He showed that there .was, on the whole, a fair ”” agreement between the values determined ballis§ ; ally and those given by the formula B='/81rF. The greatest weight supported in the experiments /.7 was 14,600 grammes per square cm., and the cor; responding induction 18,500 units. Taylor Jones subsequently found a good agreement between the FIG' 26' theoretical and the observed values of the tractive force in fields ranging up to very high intensities (Phil. Mag., 1895, 39, 254, and 1896, 41, 153). Permeameters.-Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel. The earliest of these is S. P. Thompson's perrnearneter (fourn. Sci. Arts, 1890, 38, 885), which consists of a rectangular block of iron shaped like Hopkinson's yoke, and slotted out in the same way to receive a magnetizing coil (fig. 20); the block is bored through at the upper end only, and its inner face opposite the hole is made quite fiat and smooth. The sample has the form of a thin rod, one end of which is faced true; it is slipped into the magnetizing coil from above, and when the current is turned on its smooth end adheres tightly to the surface of the yoke. The force required to detach it is measured by a registering spring balance, which is clamped to the upper end of the rod, and thence the induction or the magnetization is deduced by applying the formula


where P is the pull in grammes weight, S the sectional area of the rod in square cm., and g=98I. If the pull is measured in pounds and Q13 area in square inches, the formula may be written B=1317></P/S-l-H. The instrument exhibited by Thompson would, without undue heating, take a current of 30 amperes, which was sufficient to produce a magnetizing force of 1000 units. A testing apparatus of a similar type devised by Gisbert Kapp (Journ. Inst. Elec. Eng. xxiii. 199) differs only in a few details from Thompson's permeameter. Ewing has described an arrangement in which the test bar has a soft-iron pole piece clamped to each of its ends; the pole pieces are joined by a long well-fitting block of iron, which is placed upon them (like the “ keeper " of a magnet), and the induction is measured by the force required to detach the block. In all such measurements a correction should be made in respect of the demagnetizing force due to the joint, and unless the fit is very accurate the clemagnetizing action will be variable. In the magnetic balance of du Bois (Magnetic Circuit, p. 346) the uncertainty arising from the presence of a joint is avoided, the force measured being that exerted between two pieces of iron separated from each other by a narrow air-gap of known width. The instrument is represented diagrammatically in fig. 21. The test-piece A, surrounded by a magnetizing coil, is clamped between two soft-iron blocks B, B'. Y Y' is a soft iron yoke, which rocks upon knife-edges K and constitutes the beam of the balance. The yoke has two projecting pieces C, C' at unequal distances from the knife-edges, and separated from the blocks B, B' by narrow air-gaps. The play of the beam is limited by a stop S and a screw R, the latter being so adjusted that when the end Y of the beam is held down the two air-gaps are of equal

width. W is a weight I

capable of sliding from end W

to eng of Jhe jioke €}ong

a gra uate sca e. hen

there is no magnetization, R a S

the yoke is in equilibrium; but as soon as the current """“ B A is turned on the block C is

drawn downwards as far as

the screw R will allow, for,

though the attractive forces F between B and C and between B' and C' are equal, the former has a greater moment. The weight W is moved along the scale until the yoke just tilts over upon the stop S; the distance of W from its zero position is then, as can easily be shown, proportional to F, and therefore to B2, and approximately to 12. The scale is graduated in such a manner that by multiplying the reading by a simple factor (generally 10 or 2) the absolute value of the magnetization is obtained. The actual magnetizing force H is of course less than that due to the coil; the corrections required are effected automatically by the use of a set of demagnetization lines drawn on a sheet of celluloid which is supplied with the instrument. The celluloid sheet is laid upon the squared paper, and in plotting a curve horizontal distances are reckoned from the proper demagnetization line instead of from the vertical axis. An improved but somewhat more complex form of the instrument is described in Ann. d. Phys., 1900, 2, 317. In Ewing's magnetic balance (Journ. I rzst. Elec. Eng. 1898, 27, 526), the value of the magnetic induction corresponding to a sin le stated magnetizing force is directly read off on a divided scale. The specimen, which has the form of a turned rod, 4 in. long and } in. in diameter, , is laid across the poles of a horseshoe electromagnet, excited by a current of such strength as to produce in the rod a magnetizing force H =2o. One pole has a V-shaped notch for the rod to rest in; the surface of the other is slightly rounded, forming a portion of a cylinder, the axis of which is perpendicular to the direction of the length of the rod. The rod touches this pole at a single point, and is pulled away from it by the action of a lever, the long arm of which is graduated and carries a sliding weight. The position of the weight at the moment when contact is broken indicates the induction in the rod. The standard force H=20 was selected as being sufficiently low to distinguish between good and bad specimens, and at the same time sufficiently high to make the order of merit the same as it would be under stronger forces.

Permeability Bridges.-Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge. An excellent .instrument of the class is Ewing's permeability bridge. The standard rod and the test specimen, which must be of the same dimensions, are placed side by side within two magnetizing coils, and each pair of adjacent ends is joined by a short rectangular block or “ yoke ” of soft iron. An iron bar shaped like an inverted |? projects upwards from each of the yokes, the horizontal portions 0 the bars being parallel to the rods, and nearly meeting at a height Of about 8 ln. above them (thus I" A Compass needle placed in the gap serves to detect any How of induction that may exist between the bent bars. For simplicity of calculation, the clear length of each rod between the yokes is made I2°56 (=4-rr) centimetres, while the coil surrounding the standard bar contains 100 turns; hence the magnetizing force due to a current of n amperes will be Ion C.G.S. units. The effective number of turns in the coil surrounding the test rod can be varied by means of three dial switches (for hundreds, tens and units), which also introduce compensating resistances as the number of effective turns in the coil is reduced, thus keeping the total resistance of the circuit constant. The two coils are connected in series, the same current passing through both. Suppose the switches to be adjusted so that the effective number of turns in the variable coil is IOO; the magnetizing forces in the two coils will then be equal, and if the test rod is of the same quality as the standard, the flow of induction will be conhned entirely to the iron circuit, the two yokes will be at the same magnetic potential, and the compass needle will not be affected. If, however, the permeability of the test rod differs from that of the standard, the number of lines of induction Howing in op osite directions through the two rods will differ, and the excess willpfiow from one yoke to the other, partly through the air, and partly along the path provided by the bent bars, deflecting the compass needle. But a balance may still be obtained by altering the effective number of turns in the test coil, and thus increasing or decreasing the magnetizing force acting on the test rod, till the induction in the two rods is the same, a condition which is fulfilled when reversal of the current has no effect on the compass needle. Let rn be the number of turns in use, and H1 and H2 the magnetizing forces which produce the same induction B in the test and the standard rods respectively; then H1 =H2Xm/100. The value of B which corresponds to Hgm/ 100 can be found from the FIG. 21.