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the southerly inclination is less in South America than in the sam f '. Th d A e orc § 1; total force gs least in equatorial regions, where values atltu es o rica. i s ig t y un er o-4 C G. . are encountered. In the northern hemis-Fig. 3 is a reduced copy of the admiralty horizontal force chart phere there are two distinct maxima of total force. One of these for 1907. The curves, called isomagnetics, connect the places where so-called foci is in Canada, the other in the north-east of Siberia, the

FIG. 2-Isoclinals, or lines of equal magnetic dip. the horizontal force has the same value; the force is expressed in C Q S units. The horizontal force vanishes of course at the magnetic poles. The chart shows a maximum value of between 0-39 and 0-40 in an oval including the south of Siam and the China Sea. The horizontal force is smaller in North America than in corresponding latitudes in Europe.

Charts are sometimes drawn for other magnetic elements, especially vertical force (fig. 4) and total force. The isomagnetic of zero vertical force coincides necessarily with that of zero dip, and there is in general considerable resemblance between the forms of lines of equal vertical force and those of equal dip. The highest values of the vertical force occur in areas surrounding the magnetic poles, and are fully 50 % larger than the largest values of the horizontal Emzry Walla st.

former having the higher value of the force. There are, however, higher values of the total force than at either of thesefoci throughout a considerable area to the south of Australia. In the northern hemisphere the lines of equal total force—called 'isodynamic lines form two sets more or less distinct, consisting of closed Ovals, one set surrounding the Canadian the other the Siberian focus. § 8. As already explained, magnetic charts for the world or for large areas give only a general idea of the values of the elements. If the region is undisturbed, very fairly approximate values are derivable from the charts, but when the highest accuracy is necessary the only thing to do is to observe at the precise spot. In disturbed areas local values often depart somewhat widely from what one would infer from the chart, and occasionally there are large differences

FIG. 3.-Isomagnetics, lines of equal horizontal force.