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364
MAGNETISM, TERRESTRIAL

TABLE XI.-Diurnal Inequality of Inclination mean from whole year. S . Pe rsbur

Station. jan Mayen. mid Pgalovslg Greenwich. Kew. Stplslfur Tifiis. Kolaba. Batavia. Mauritius. End Dipping. North. North. North. North. North. North. North. South. South. South. 8 . ' ', I ' ' ",

Period. 1882-1883. 1873-1885. 1890-1900. 1891-1900.IS83-1897. 1888-1898. 1894-1901. 1883-1894. 1884-1890. 1902-1903. a. q. a. q. a. q. a. ' a. q. i a. a. a. I

| Hour I I I I I I I I I I I I

1 +4-6 +1-5 -0-5 -0-3 -O*4 -o-3 -0-3 -0-1 I +0-6 +0-9 +0-3 +0-6 2 +5-0 -I-1-6 -o-5 -0-3 -o-3 -0-2 -o-3 -0-1 -I-o-6 +0-8 +O'2 +0-7 3 -l-5-6 +1-6 -0-5 -0-3 -o-3 -O'2 -0-3 -o-1 .+o-5 -I-0-6 oo +0-7 4 +5-0 +1-5 -0-4 -0-3 -0-3 -o-2 -0-4 -o-2 +0-5 -l-0-5 0 0 +0-7 5 +4-2 +I-4 -0-5 -0-3 -0-2 -0-2 —0-4 -0°2 +0-7 +0-3 ~0'I +0-7 6 +2'4 +1-2 -0-4 -0-3 -O°I -0-1 -o-3 -0-1 -l-0-8 +0-1 -02 +0-5 7 +0-7 +0-9 -0-2 -o-1 +0-2 +0-1 0-0 0-0 ~ +0-5 -0-2 -0 3 +0-4 8 -0'I -I-0-8 -I-O~I -{-0-3 +0-6 +0-4 +0-4 ' +o~3 -o-2 -0-8 -04 +03-3 9 -o-7 +o-8 +0-6 ' +0-6 +1-o +0-8 ' +0-7 +0-5 -1-2 -1-7 -04 -I-0-1 I0 -1-2 +0-9 +I~0 +1-0 +1-1 +1-0 +0-9 +0-3 -1-9 -2-7 -0 5 -o-2 II -2-2 +0-8 +1-2 +1-2 +1-0 +0-9 -I-o-7 0-0 -2-1 -3-3 -0 6 -0-4 Noon f-3-4 +O'4 +1-1 -l-1-1 +0-6 +0-6 +0-4 -o-5 -1-6 -3-1 -0 7 -0-7 1 -4-5 -0-2 +0-7 +o-7 +0-3 +0-2 +0-2 -0-6 -o-8 -2-4 -0 8 -o-9 2 -5-6 -1-2 +0-4 +0-4 +0-1 +0-1 +o-2 -0-5 -o-2 -1-3 -0 6 -1-0 3 -6-3 -2-2 +0-2 +0-1 o-0 o-o +0-2 -o-3 +0-3 -0-2 -03 -1-o 4 -6-1 -'2°9 0-0 -o-1 -o-1 -O'I +0-2 +0-1 +o-3 +0-7 +0-1 -0-9 5 -5-1 -3-2 -0'I -o-3 -0-2 -o-2 +O'I +0-4 +0'2 +1-3 +0-4 -o-7 6 -3-1 -2-9 -0-2 -o-3 -0-3 -o-3 0-0 -I-0-5 +0-2 +1-5 ' -I-o5 -0-5 7 -1-7 -2-2 -0-3 -o-4 -o-4 -0-4 -o-2 -I-0-4 +0-3 -I-1-6 +0 5 -o-2 8 -+0-3 -1-3 -o-3 -0-5 -0-4 -0-4 -0-3 +0-2 +0-4 -i-1-6 +0 6 0-0 9 +2-0 -0-3 -0-4 -0-6 -0-4 -o-4 -o-3 +0-1 -I-0 5 +1-6 +0-6 +0-2 IO +2-5 +o~5 -0-5 -0-6 -O'4 -o-3 -o-3 o-o -I-o 6 +1~5 +0-6 +0-4 II +3-o +1-0 -0-5 -0-6 -o-4 -0-3 -o-3 o-o -I-o-6 -I-1-4 +0-5 +0-5 I2 -I-4-0 ' +1-3 -0-5 -0-4 -0-4 -o-3 -o-3 -O'I +0-6 +1-2 +O'4 +0-6 1 Range ' 11-9 4-8 1-7 1-8 1-5 1-4 V vI'3 1-1 2-9 4-9 1-4 1-7 1 or 2 p.m. At the extreme southern station, Hobart-at nearly equal latitude-the rapid diurnal movement is to the east, and so in the opposite direction to that in the northern hemisphere, but it again takes place at nearly the same hours in June (midwinter) as in December. If, however, we take a tropical station such as Trivandrum or Kolaba, the phenomena in June and December are widely different in type. At Trivandrum-situated near the magnetic equator in India-we have in June the conspicuous forenoon swing to the west seen at Toronto, occurring it is true slightly earlier in the day; but in December at the corresponding hours the needle is actually swinging to the east, just as it is doing at Hobart. In June the diurnal inequality of declination at tropical stations-whether to the north of the equator like Trivandrum, or to the south of it like Batavia—is on the whole of the general type characteristic of temperate regions in the northern hemisphere; whereas in December the inequality at these stations resembles that of temperate regions in the southern hemisphere. Comparing the inequalities for June in Table XII. amongst themselves, and those for December amongst themselves, one can trace a gradual transformation from the phenomena seen at Toronto to those seen at Hobart. At a tropical station the change from the June to the December type is probably in all cases more or less gradual, but at some stations the transition seems pretty rapid. § 15. In the case of the horizontal force there are, as Table IX. shows, two markedly different types of diurnal inequality. In the one type, exemplified by Pavlovsk or Greenwich, the force is below its mean value in the middle of the day; it has a principal minimum about IO or II a.m., and morning and evening maxima, the latter usually the largest. In the other type, exemplified by Kolaba or Batavia, the horizontal force is above its mean in the middle of the TABLE XII.-Diurnal Inequality of Declination (-{- to West). O

Station. Toronto. Kolaba. Trivandrum. Batavia. St Helena. Mauritius. Cape. Hobart. Month. June. Dec. June. Dec. June. Dec. June. Dec. June. Dec. June. Dec. June. Dec. June. Dec. Hour 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

1 -0-4 -0-1 -o-3 0-o -0-3 -0-1 +0-I +0-1 -0-1 -0-4 0-0 -I-O'I -0-4 -0°7 +0-8 +I'I 2 -0°2 +0'4 -o-3 +0-1 -o-4 +0-1 -o-1 +0-1 -o-2 -O'I -0-2 +0-2 -0-5 -0-4 +0-3 +1-1 3 -0-2 -o-1 -o-3 +0-1 -o-4 -l-0-3 -o-2 +0-2 '-O°2 +0-1 -0-2 +O'4 -0-7 -O'I -O'I +1-0 4 -I'2 -0-4 -o-3 +o-3 -o-5 +0-5 -o-3 +0-3 -o-3 +0-3 -o-2 +0-7 -0-6 +0-3 -0-1 +1-1 5 -2-9 -0-6 -0-7 +0~4 -o-7 +0-7 -0-3 +o-5 -0-5 +0-6 -0-3 +1-0 -0-7 +I'O 0-o +1-7 6 -5-2 -0-6 -1-6 +0-5 -1-6 +l'I -0-5 +'I'2 -fI'O +0-9 -0-4 -|-1-7 -I°0 +2-2 0-0 +2-7 7 -6-2 -o-9 -2-2 +0-7 -1-7 +1-4 -1-1 -i-2, -2-2 +1-9 -I'I +2-6 -1-6 +3-3 -0-1 +4-4 8 -6-0 -1-2 -2'I -I-O'2 -1-1 +0'9 -o-4 -I-2-3 -I-5 +2-2 -I'O +2-4 -0-8 -|-3-6 -I-O'I +5-6 9 -4-4 -1-8 -I'I -0-I -0-2 +0-'5 +0-5 +2-o -0-3 -I-1-3 +0-2 +2'O +0-7 -{-3-1 +0-6 -I-5-6 IO -1-5 -1-1 0-0 -0-2 +0-6 +0-3 +0-9 +I-.3 -l-0-3 +0-2 +I-2 -I-1-1 +1~6 +1-6 +1-2 +3-6 II +2-1 +0-6 +1-2 o-0 +1-2 +0-1. +1-0 +0~4 'l-0-5 I'0 +1-4 o-0 +1-5 +O°I +1-0 +0-7 Noon +4-8 +2-2 +2-1 0-0 +1-4 -o-4 +0-7 -o 6 +0-3 -1-4 ' +1-0 -1-4 +0-8 -1-o -o-1 -2-6 1 +6~1 -1-3-2 -I-2-0 -0-2 +1-1 -0-8 +0-3 - -4 +0-3 -I'2 +0-1 -2-2 +0-3 -1-8' -1-4 -5-1 2 +6~l +3-2 +1-6 -0-3 +0-7 -0-9 -o-2 -1-8 +0'2 -0-4 -0-9 -Z-5 -o-3 -1-9 -2-2 -6-2 3 +5-2 +2-4 +0-9 -0-3 +0-3 -0-9 -0-7 -1-9 +0-2 -|~0~4 -1-5 -2-2 -o-3 -1-4 -2-4 -5-8 4 +3~6 +1-5 +0-2 -0-3 +0-1 g-0-8 -o-8 - -6 +0-7 +0-6 -1-3 -1-6 +0-2 -o-8 -1-6 -4-8 5 +1-8 +0-5 0-0 -o-2 0-0 -o-4 -0-5 - -2 +1-1 -I-0-4 -o-3 -1-0 +0-5 -o-8 -0-7 -3-3 6 +0-7 -0-I +0~I -0~2 +0-2 -o-4 -0-I -0'7 +I'O +0'I . -l-0-5 -0-5 +0-5 -o-6 -o-4 -1-9 7 0-o -o-8 -+-0-3 -0-2 +0-5 -0-4 +0'I -0-6 +0-6 -0-4 +0-7 -0-3 +O'4 -0-8 0-0 -1-0 8 0-o -1-2 +0-4 -o-1 +0-5 -*0'3 +0°2 '°0'5 +0'5 -0~7 +0-7 -o-3 -l-0-3 -0-9 +o-5 -o-3 9 -o-5 -1-4 +0-3 -o-1 +0-4 -0-2 +0-4 -0-3 +0-4 -0-9 +0-6 -o-2 +0-2 -0-9 +I'I o-0 I0 -0-5 -I'7 +0-1 0-o +O'2 -O'I +0-4 ~0'l -l-0~2 -I-0 +o-4 -0-1 +0'I -1-0 +1-3 +0-6 V Il -0-7 -I'I -O'I -0-1 0-0 -0-1 +0-3 o-o -I-0-I -0-8 +0-3 0-o 0-0 -I°0 +1-3 4 +O'9 I2 -Q~5 -0-7 -0-2 -0-1 -0-2 -0-1 +0-2 +0-1 -0'I -0-6 +0'I +0-1 -0-2 -I°O +1-1 ' +I'2 d Range 12.3' 5.0 I.0' 3»I' 2.3 2.1 4-2 3-3, 3.6 2.9 5.1 3.2 I 3.7 ' 11.8 J