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365
MAGNETISM, TERRESTRIAL


day, and has a maximum about Il a.m. The second type may be regarded as the tropical type. At tropical stations, such as Kolaba, Batavia, Manila and St Helena, the type is practically the same in summer as in winter, and is the same whether the station is north or south of the equator. Similarly, what we may call the temperate type is seen-with comparatively slight modifications-both in summer and winter at stations such as Greenwich or Pavlovsk In winter, it is true, the pronounced daily minimum is a little later and the early morning maximum is relatively more important than in summer. There is not, as in the case of the declination, any essential difference between the phenomena at temperate stations in the northern and southern hemispheres.

JUNE DECEMBER

FIG. 6.

With diminishing latitude, there is a gradual transition from the temperate to the tropical type of horizontal force diurnal variation, and at stations whose latitude is under 45° there is a very app1'eeiable variation in type with the season. The mean diurnal variation for the year at Tifiis in Table IX. really represents a struggle between the two types, in which on the whole the temperate type prevails. If we take the diurnal variations at Tifiis for midsummer and midwinter, we find the former essentially of the temperate, the latter essentially of the tropical type. A similar conflict may be seen in the mean diurnal inequality for the year at the Cape of Good Hope, but there the tropical type on the whole predominates, and it revails more at midwinter than at midsummer. Toronto and lzlobart, though similar in latitude to Tiflis, show a closer approach to the temperate type. Still at both stations the hours during which the force is below its mean value tend to extend back towards midnight, especially at midsummer. The amplitude of the horizontal force range appears less at intermediate stations, such as Tifiis, than at stations in either higher or lower latitudes. There is a very great difference in this respect between the north and the south of India.

§ 16. In the case of the vertical force in higher temperate latitudes -at Pavlovsk for instance?-the diurnal inequalities from “ all ” and from “quiet " days differ somewhat widely in amplitude and slightly even in type. In mean latitudes, e.g. at Tiliis, there is often a well marked double period in the mean diurnal inequality for the whole year; but even at Tifiis this is hardly, if at all, apparent in the winter months. In the summer months the double period is distinctly seen at Kew and Greenwich, though the evening maximum is always pre-emine11t. Speaking generally, the time of the minimum, or principal minimum, varies much less with the season than that of the maximum. At Kew, for instance, on quiet days the minimum falls between II a.m. and noon in almost all the months of the year, but the time of the maximum varies from about 4 p.m. in December to 7 p.m. in June. At Kolaba the time of the minimum is nearly independent of the season; but the changes from positive to negative in the forenoon and from negative to positive in the afternoon are some hours later in winter than in summer. At Batavia the diurnal inequality varies very little in type with the season, and there is little evidence of more than one maximum and minimum in the day. At Batavia, as at Kolaba, negative values occur near noon; but it must be remembered that while at Kolaba and more northern stations vertical force urges the north pole of a magnet downwards, the reverse is true of Batavia, as the dip is southerly. At St Helena vertical force is below its mean value in the forenoon, b'ut the change from - to + occurs at noon, or but little later, both in winter and summer. At the Cape of Good Hope the phenomena at midsummer are similar to those at Kolaba, the force being below its mean value from about 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. and above it throughout the rest of the day; but at midwinter there is a conspicuous double period, the force being below its mean from I a.m. to 7 a.m. as well as from II a.m. to 3 p.m., and thus resembling the all-day annual results at Greenwich. At Hobart vertical force is below its mean value from 1 a.m. to 9 a.m. at midsummer, and from 4 a.m. to noon at midwinter; while the force is above its mean persistently throughout the afternoon both in summer and winter, there is at midwinter a well marked secondary minimum about 6 p.m., almost the same hour as that at which the maximum for the day is observed in summer. § 17. Variations of inclination are connected with those of horizontal and vertical force by the relation-61

=% sin 2IlV 1 5V-H-1 6H}.

Thus in temperate latitudes where V is considerably in excess of H, whilst diurnal changes in V are usually less than those in H, it is the latter which chiefly dominate the diurnal changes in inclination. When the H influence prevails, I has its highest values at hours when H is least. This explains why the dip is above its mean value near midday at stations in Table XI. from Pavlovsk to Parc St Maur. Near the magnetic equator the vertical force has the greater influence. This alone would tend to make a minimum dip in the late forenoon, and this minimum is accentuated owing to the altered type of the horizontal force diurnal variation, whose maximum now coincides closely with the minimum in the vertical force. This accounts for the prominence of the minimum in the diurnal variation of the inclination at Kolaba and Batavia, and the large amplitude of the range. Tiflis shows an intermediate type of diurnal variation; there is a minimum near noon, as in tropical stations, but inclination is also below its mean for some hours near midnight. The type really varies at Tiflis according to the season of the year. In June-as in the mean equality from the whole year—there is a well marked double period; there is a principal minimum at 2 p.m. and a secondary one about 4 a.m.; a principal maximum about 9 a.m. and a secondary one about 6 p.m. In December, however, only a single period is recognizable, with a minimum about 8 a.m. and a maximum about 7 p.m. The type of diurnal inequality seen TABLE XlII.-Range of the Diurnal Inequality of Declination. Place. Period. ]an. Feb. March. April. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. I I I I I I I I I I I I

Pavlovsk 1890-1900 a 4-93 6-15 8-58 10-93 12-18 12-27 11-82 11-38 8-70 6'8 7 5-54 4-63 q 2-96 4-20 8-73 11-28 12-89 13-28 12-31 11-70 9-37 6-91 3-95 2 66 Ekatarinburg 1890-1900 a 3-33 4-32 7-63 1 1-19 11-82 11-58 11-09 10-45 8-13 5-60 3-73 3-14 Greenwich 1865-1896 a 5-87 7-07 9-40 11-42 10-55 10-90 10-82 10-93 9-66 8-15 6-41 5-15 Kew 1890-1900 a 4-92 6-06 9-08 10-95 IO~66 IO'92 10-59 11-01 9-49 7-73 5-37 4-46 q 4-07 4-76 8-82 10-57 10-92 10-62 10-18 11-01 9-76 7-51 4-75 3-34 Toronto 1842-1848 a 5-96 6-05 9-18 9-94 11-55 12-34 12-21 13-14 10-76 6-96 6-32 4-97 Manila . 1890-1900a 1-79 1-09 2-13 3-02 3-84 3-94 4-21 4-89 4-53 1-83 0-85 1 33 Trivandrum 1853-1864a 2-O6 1-48 0-79 1-67 2-90 3-06 3-06 3-64 3-31 1-27 2-14 2-33 Batavia . 1884-1899a 4-18 4-64 3-57 2-93 2-38 2-03 2-31 3-16 3-80 4-51 4-50 4 I9 St Helena - 1342-1347 21 3'72 5°19 4'93 3'30 2'64 3°24 3'42 3'59 2'40 4'43 4'05 3'54 Mauritius 1876-1890a 5-2 6-1 6-3 4-7 4-1 2-9 3-4 4-9 5-0 5-5 5-6 5 1 Cape . 1841-1846a 5-14 8-21 7-27 5-00 3-91 3-21 3-54 4-98 4-33 5-96 6-36 5-47 4 Hobart 1841-1848a 11-66 11-80 9-50 7-26 4-56 3-70 4 4-61 5-89 8-24 II~OI 12-05 11-81