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length (H. Lloyd, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 1839, 1, 334). The magnet is so weighted that its axis is approximately horizontal, and any change in the inclination of the axis is observed by means of an attached mirror, a second mirror fixed to the stand serving to give a base line for the records, which are obtained in the same way as in the case of the declination. The magnet is in equilibrium under the influence of the couple VM due to the vertical component V, and the couple due to the fact that the centre of gravity is slightly on one side of the knife-edge. Hence when, say, V decreases the couple VM decreases, and hence the north end of the balanced magnet rises, and vice versa. The chief difficulty with this form of instrument is that it is very sensitive to changes of temperature, for such changes not only alter M but also in general cause the centre of gravity of the system to be displaced with reference to the knife-edge. To reduce these effects the magnet is fitted with compensating bars, generally of zinc, so adjusted by trial that as far as possible they neutralize the effect of changes of teméiierature. In the Eschenhagen form of vertical force balance two effecting magnets are used to partly neutralize the vertical component, so that the centre of gravity is almost exactly over the support. By varying. the positions of these deflecting magnets it is possible to compensate or the effects of changes o temperature (A. Schmidt, loc. cit.). In order to eliminate the irregularity which is apt to be introduced by dust, &c., interfering with the working of the knife edge, W. Watson (Phil. Mag., 1904 [6], 7, 593) designed a form of vertical force balance in which the magnet with its mirror is attached to the mid point of a horizontal stretched quartz fibre. The temperature compensation is obtained by attaching a small weight to the magnet, and then bringing it back to the horizontal position by twisting the fibre.

The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical force magneto graphs are determined by deflecting the respective needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter surrounding the instruments.

The width of the photographic sheet which receives the spot of light reflected from the mirrors in the above instruments is generally so great that in the case of ordinary changes the curve does not go off the paper. Occasionally, however, during a disturbance such is not the case, and hence a portion of the trace would be lost. To overcome this difficulty Eschenhagen in his earlier type of instruments attached to each magnet two mirrors, their planes being inclined at a small angle so that when the spot reflected from one mirror goes off the paper, that corresponding to the other comes on. In the later pattern a third mirror is added of which the Plane is inclined at about 30° to the horizontal. The light from the slit is reflected on to this mirror by an inclined fixed mirror, and after reflection at the movable mirror is again reflected at the fixed mirror and so reaches the recording drum. By this arrangement the angular rotation of the reflected beam is less than that of the magnet, and hence the spot of light reflected from this mirror yields a trace on a much smaller scale than that given by the ordinary mirror and serves to give a complete record of even the most energetic disturbance.

See also Balfour Stewart, Report of the British Association, Aberdeen, 1859, 200, a description of the type of instrument used in the older observatories; E. Mascart, Traité de magnétisme terrestre, p. 191; W. Watson, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1901, 6, 187, describing magnetographs used in India; M. Eschenhagen, Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft, 1899, 1, 147; Terrestrial Magnetism, 1900, 5, 59; and 1901, 6, 59; Zeits. für Instrumentenkunde, 1907, 27, 137; W. G. Cady, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1904, 9, 69, describing a declination magneto graph in which the record is obtained by means of a pen acting on a moving strip of paper, so that the curve can be consulted at all times to see whether a disturbance is in progress.

The effects of temperature being so marked on the readings of the horizontal and vertical force magneto graphs, it is usual to place the instruments either in an underground room or in a room which, by means of double walls and similar devices, is protected as much as possible from temperature changes. For descriptions of the arrangements adopted in some observatories see the following: U.S. observatories, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1903, 8,11; Utrecht, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1900, 5, 49; St Maur, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1898, 3, 1; Potsdam, Veröffentlichungen des k. preuss. meteorol. Instituts, “ Ergebnisse der rnagnetischen Beobachtungen in Potsdam in den Jahren 1890 und 1891;" Pavlovsk, “Das Konstantinow’sche meteorologische und magnetische Observatorium in Pavlovsk,” Ausgabe der kaiserl. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu St Petersburg, 1895.  (W. Wn.) 

MAGNETOMETER, a name, in its most general sense, for any instrument used to measure the strength of any magnetic field; it is, however, often used in the restricted sense of an instrument for measuring a particular magnetic field, namely, that due to the earth’s magnetism, and in this article the instruments used for measuring the value of the earth’s magnetic field will alone be considered.

The elements which are actually measured when determining the value of the earth's field are usually the declination, the dip and the horizontal component (see Magnetism, Terrestial). For the instruments and methods used in measuring the dip see Inclinometer. It remains to consider the measurement of the declination and the horizontal component, these two elements being generally measured with the same instrument, which is called a unifilar magnetometer.

Fig. 1.—Unifilar Magnetometer, arranged to indicate declination.

Measurement of Declination.-The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination. In order to determine the magnetic meridian the orientation of the magnetic axis of a freely suspended magnet is observed; while, in the absence of a distant mark of which the azimuth is known, the geographical meridian is obtained from observations of the transit of the sun or a star. The geometrical axis of the magnet is sometimes defined by means of a mirror rigidly attached to the magnet and having the normal to the mirror as nearly as may be parallel to the magnetic axis. This arrangement is not very convenient, as it is difficult to protect the mirror from accidental displacement, so that the angle between the geometrical and magnetic axes may vary. For this reason the end of the magnet is sometimes polished and acts as the mirror, in which case no displacement of the reflecting surface with reference to the magnet is possible. A different arrangement, used in the instrument described below, consists in having the magnet hollow, with a small scale engraved on glass firmly attached at one end, while to the other end is attached a lens, so chosen that the scale is at its principal focus. In this case the geometrical axis is the line joinin the central division of the scale to the optical centre of the lens. The position of the magnet is observed by means of a small telescope, and since the scale is at the principal focus of the lens, the scale will be in focus when the telescope is adjusted to observe a distant object. Thus no alteration in the focus of the telescope is necessary whether we are observing the magnet, a distant fixed mark, or the sun.

The Kew Observatory pattern unifilar magnetometer is shown in figs. 1 and 2. The magnet consists of a hollow steel cylinder fitted with a scale and lens as described above, and is suspended by a long thread of unspun silk, which is attached at the upper end, to the torsion head H. The magnet is protected from draughts by the box A, which is closed at the sides by two shutters when an observation is being taken. The telescope B serves to observe the scale