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387
MAGNETOMETER


attached to the magnet when 'determining the magnetic meridian, andéo observe the sun or star when determining the geographical men ian.

When making a determination of declination a brass plummet having the same weight as the magnet is first suspended in its place, and the torsion of the fibre is taken out. The magnet having been attached, the instrument is rotated about its vertical axis till the centre division of the scale appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope. The two verniers on the azimuth circle having been read, the magnet is then inverted, i.e. turned through 180° about its axis, and the setting is repeated. A second setting with the magnet inverted is generally made, and then another setting with the magnet in its original position. The mean of all the readirllgs of the verniers gives the reading on the azimuth circle correspond ing to the magnetic meridian. To obtain the geographical meridian the box A is removed, and an image of the sun or a star is reflected into the telescope B by means of a small transit mirror N. This mirror can rotate about a horizontal axis which is at right almost exclusively used, both in fixed observatories and in the field, consists in observing the period of a freely suspended magnet, and then obtaining the angle through which an auxiliary suspended magnet is defected by the magnet used in the first part of the experiment. By the vibration experiment we obtain the value of the product of the magnetic moment (M) of the magnet into the horizontal component (H), while by the reflexion experiment we can deduce the value of the ratio of M to H, and hence the two combined give both M and H.

In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian. The time of vibration is obtained by means of a chronometer, using the eye-and-ear method. The temperature of the magnet must also be observed, for which purpose a thermometer C (fig. I) is attached to the box A. When making the defection experiment the magnetometer is arranged as shown in fig. 2. The auxiliary magnet has a plane mirror attached, the plane of

which is at right angles to the

» axis of the magnet. An image

of the ivory scale B is observed

ja' after rgflecgon lin the Amaglnlet

mirror the te esco e . e

wif magnet li used in thi; vibration

experiment is hsupporfejd can a

carriage whic can si e a ong

gl.; the graduated bar D. The axis

1 of the magnet is horizontal and

at the same level as the mirror

3 magnet, while when the central

Y 1 3 * Q divisio n of the scale B appears E (5 ll; £s..w.— to coincide with the vertical it ir; j ! f>1, cross-ngireh of the telescope the A , fic , f"'i** ='*'l*f'ii=“l axes o the two magnets are at g 'Elf K, right angles. During the ex;»~~ 4* E ?;'|s§ af@ae'“€2=@f ' periment the mirror magnet is Avg; g, ¥ @-# na-, ' ' U', ,, , JP . @:, , m:, % ' ' ~ '| L protceicteddfrom dreiiugkhts two "" .'j7= .;, #l-, ,., rpg" - H, woo en oors w ic si e in A - i.'ff'jQjj;§ ' “ "'—f»i».r, ., ,., M ° grooves. What is known as the 7| ':%'?7f .; M i, ¢ () ¢;, .., ; v»;, h d f . . d f .n ~', w......:;¢-cr Q, , (Y; met o o sinesis use, or si ce ilL~lUl;;..x, »., '~~'~ ~ f—f-'f" =5; ! the axes of the two magnets are 3 g;~ga.a, tg.;;, €%i;;é, ;.§ ; LV, ;%:;.é -%m &§ i , fg, a§ ;f§ =s<-= »'-' 2- 4 always at right angles when the i;' aj - . U' ' ' 'f' 5:; 1-5% -L# mirror magnet is lifs zero posi*ia- f — -, H fijiiffféla - .< fjj§ f'—~;» aj 'f tion, the ratio is ro or§ ¥§ ;;, , -T? f§ ?*:§§ i'“?§ Tj:;§ tional to the sine of thep aggle "ii-Tl? iii »;§ ;;é“=~§ f;§§ ;If' ; 1' . ' ' EEE' .?~-:;“"? between the magnetic axis of the ll; ' - iff;';?'LT¢?*"'f':W 4;;; ;, fi* mirror magnet and the magnetic F IG 2.-Unifilar Magnetometer, arranged to show reflexion. angles to the line of collimation of the telescope, and is parallel to the surface of the mirror. The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude of the place of observation are given. Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading corresponding to the geographical meridian.

The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory. If, however, a theodolite, fitted with a telescope which can rotate about a horizontal axis and having an altitude circle, is employed, so that when observing a transit the altitude of the sun or star can be read ofi, then the time need only be known to within a minute or so. Hence in more recent patterns of ma netometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method oi; observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.

The chief uncertainty in declination observations, at any rate at a fixed observatory, lies in the variable torsion of the silk suspension, as it is found that, although the Hbre may be entirely freed from torsion before beginning the declination observations, yet at the conclusion of these observations a considerable amount of torsion may have appeared. Soaking the fibre with glycerin, so that the moisture it absorbs does not change so much with the hygrometric state of the air, is of some advantage, but does not entirely remove the difficulty. For this reason some observers use a thin strip of phosphor bronze to suspend the magnet, considering that the absence of a variable torsion more than compensates for the increased difficulty in handling the more fragile metallic suspension. Measurement of the Horizontal Component of the Ei1rth's Field.-The method of measuring the horizontal component which is W Q ' meridian. When conducting a

reflexion experiment the deflecting

magnet K is placed

with its centre at 30 cm. from

the mirror magnet and to the east of the latter, and the whole instrument is turned till the centre division of the scale B coincides with the cross-wire of the telescope, when the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are noted. The magnet is then reversed in the support, and a new setting taken. The difference between the two sets of readings gives twice the angle which the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet makes with the magnetic meridian. In order to eliminate any error due to the zero of the scale D not being exactly below the mirror magnet, the support L is then removed to the west side of the instrument, and the settings are repeated. Further, to allow of a correction beingapphed for the finite length of the magnets the whole series of settings is repeated with the centre of the deflecting magnet at 40 cm. from the mirror magnet. Omitting correction terms depending on the temperature and on the inductive effect of the earth's magnetism on the moment of the defecting magnet, if 6 is the angle which the axis of the deflected magnet makes with the meridian when the centre of the deflecting magnet is at a distance r, then

3

~ 2-Ilél-sin0= I -{- E + %-|- &c.,

in which P and Q are constants depending on the dimensions and magnetic states of the two magnets. The value of the constants P and Q can be obtained by making defiexion experiments at three distances. It is, however, possible by suitably choosing the proportions of the two magnets to cause either P or Q to be very small. Thus it is usual, if the magnets are of similar shape, to make the deflected magnet 0-467 of the length of the deflecting magnet, in which case Q is negligible, and thus by means of defiexion experiments at two distances the value of P can be obtained. (See Borgen, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1896, 1. p. 176, and C- Chfeer Phd-Mag.. 1904 [6]. 7. p. 123->

In the case of the vibration experiment correction terms have to be introduced to allow for the temperature of the magnet, for the inductive effect of the earth's field, which slightly increases the magnetic moment of the magnet, and for the torsion of the suspension fibre, as well as the rate of the chronometer. If the temperature of the magnet were always exactly the same in both the vibration and