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reflexion experiment, then no correction on account of the effect of temperature in the magnetic moment would be necessary in either experiment. The fact that the moment of inertia of the magnet varies with the temperature must, however, be taken into account. In the dc flex ion experiment, in addition to the induction correction, and that for the effect of temperature on the magnetic moment, a correction has to be applied for the effect of temperature on the length of the bar which supports the dellexion magnet. See also Stewart and Gee, Practical Physics, vol. 2, containing a description of the Kew pattern unililar magnetometer and detailed instructions for performing the experiments; C. Chree, Phil. Mag., 1901 (6), 2, p. 613, and Proc. Roy. Sac., 1899, 65, p. 375, COI'ltai11lI'l g a discussion of the errors to which the Kew unifilar instrument IS subject; E. Mascart, Traité de magnetism terrestre, containing a description of the instruments used in the French magnetic survey, which are interesting on account of their small size and consequent easy portability; H. E. D. Fraser, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1901, 6, p. 65, containing a description of a modified Kew pattern unifilar as used in the Indian survey; H. Wild, Mém. Acad. imp. sc. St Pétersbaurg, 1896 (viii.), vol. 3, No. 7, containing a description of a most elaborate unitilar magnetometer with which it is claimed results can be obtained of a very high order of accuracy; K. Haufsmann, Zeits. fztr Instrumentenkunde, 1906, 26, p. 2, containing a description of a magnetometer for field use, designed by M. Eschenhagen, which has many advantages.

Measurements of the Magnetic Elements at Sea.-Owing to the fact that the proportion of the earth's surface covered by sea is so much greater than the dry land, the determination of the magnetic elements on board ship is a matter of very considerable importance. The movements of a ship entirely preclude the employment of any instrument in which a magnet suspended by a fibre has any part, so that the unitilar is unsuited for such observations. In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars. A carefully made ship's compass is usually employed, though in some cases the compass card, with its attached magnets, is made reversible, so that the inclination to the zero of the card of the magnetic axis of the system of magnets attached to the card can be eliminated by reversal. In the absence of such a reversible card the index correction must be determined by comparison with a unifilar magnetometer, simultaneous observations being made on shore, and these observations repeated as often as occasion permits. To determine the dip a Fox's dip circle* is used. This consists of an ordinary dip circle (see INCLINOMETER) in which the ends of the axle of the needle are pointed and rest in jewelled holes, so that the movements of the ship do not displace the needle. The instrument is, of course, supported on a gimballed table, while the ship during the observations is kept on a fixed course. To obtain the strength of the held the method usually adopted is that known as Lloyd's method? To carry out a determination of the total force by this method the Fox dip circle has been slightly modified by E. W. Creak, and has been found to give satisfactory results on board ship. The circle is provided with two needles in addition to those used for determining the dip, one (a) an ordinary dip needle, and the other (b) a needle which has been loaded at one end by means of a small peg which fits into one of two symmetrically placed holes in the needle. The magnetism of these two needles is never reversed, and they are as much as possible protected from shock and from approach to other magnets, so that their magnetic state may remain as constant as possible. Attached to the cross-arm which carries the microscopes used to observe the ends of the dipping needle is a clamp, which will hold the needle b in such a way that its plane is parallel to the vertical circle and its axis is at right angles to the line joining the two microscopes. Hence, when the microscopes are adjusted so as to coincide with the points of the dipping needle a, the axes of the two needles must be at right angles. The needle a being suspended between the jewels, and the needle b being held in the clamp, the cross-arm carrying the reading microscopes and the needle b is rotated till the ends of the needle a coincide with the cross-wires of the microscopes. The verniers having been read, the cross-arm is rotated so as to deflect the needle a in the opposite direction, and a new setting is taken. Half the difference between the two readings gives

1 Annals of Electricity, 183, 3, p. 288.

2 Humphrey Lloyd, Proc. gay. Irish Acad., 1848, 4, p. 57.

the angle through which the needle a has been deflected under the action of the needle b. This angle depends on the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle b to the total force of the earth's held. It also involves, of course, the distance between the needles and the distribution of the magnetism of the needles; but this factor is determined by comparing the value given by the instrument, at a shore station, with that given by an ordinary magnetometer. Hence the above observation gives us a means of obtaining the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle b to the value of the earth's total force. The needle b is then substituted for a, there being now no needle in the clamp attached to the microscope arm, and the difference between the reading now obtained and the dip, together with the weight added to the needle, gives the product of the moment of the needle b into the earth's total force. Hence, from the two observations the value of the earth's total force can be deduced. In an actual observation the deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while different weights would be used to deflect the needle b. For a description of the method of using the Fox circle for observations at sea consult the Admiralty Manual of Scientijic Inquiry, p. 116, while a description of the most recent form of the circle, known as the Lloyd-Creak pattern, will be found in Terrestrial Magnetism, 1901, 6, p. 119. An attachment to the ordinary ship's compass, by means of which satisfactory measurements of the horizontal component have been made on board ship, is described by L. A. Bauer in Terrestrial Magnetism, 1906, II, p. 78. The principle of the method consists in deflecting the compass needle by means of a horizontal magnet supported vertically over the compass card, the axis of the defecting magnet being always perpendicular to the axis of the magnet attached to the card. The method is not strictly an absolute one, since it presupposes a knowledge of the magnetic moment of the deflecting magnet. In practice it is found that a magnet can be prepared which, when suitably protected from shock, &c., retains its magnetic moment sufficiently constant to enable observations of H to be made comparable in accuracy with that of the other elements obtained by the instruments ordinarily employed at sea. (W. WN.)

MAGNETO-OPTICS. The first relation between magnetism and light was discovered by Faraday) who proved that the plane of polarization of a ray of light was rotated when the ray travelled through certain substances parallel to the lines of magnetic force. This power of rotating the plane of polarization in a magnetic field has been shown to be possessed by all refracting substances, whether they are in the solid, liquid or gaseous state. The rotation by gases was established independently by H. Becquerel,2 and Kundt and R6ntgen,3 while Kundt4 found that films of the magnetic metals, iron, cobalt, nickel, thin enough to be transparent, produced enormous rotations, these being in iron and cobalt magnetized to saturation at the rate of zoo,000° per cm. of thickness, and in nickel about 8Q, OOO°. The direction of rotation is not the same in all bodies. If we call the rotation positive when it is related to the direction of the magnetic force, like rotation and translation in a right-handed screw, or, what is equivalent, when it is in the direction of the electric currents which would produce a magnetic field in the same direction as that which produces the rotation, then most substances produce positive rotation. Among those that produce negative rotation are ferrous and ferric salts, ferricyanide of potassium, the salts of lanthanum, cerium and didymium, and chloride of titanium.5 The magnetic metals iron, nickel, cobalt, the salts of nickel and cobalt, and oxygen (the most magnetic gas) produce positive rotation.

For slightly magnetizable substances the amount of rotation in a space PQ is proportional to the difference between the magnetic potential at P and Q; or if 6 is the rotation in PQ, QP, QQ, the magnetic potential at P and Q, then 6=R(SZP—SZQ), where R is a constant, called Verdet's constant, which depends upon the refracting substance, the wave length of the light, and the temperature. The following are the values of R (when the rotation is expressed in circular measure) for the D line and a temperature of 18 C.:- Observer.

Lord Rayleighs and K6psel.

Rodger and Watson.8

Substance. R X IO 5.

Carbon bi sulphide . .

377 Arons.'°

Water ' ' -3808 Rodger and Watson.”

Alcohol .... -330 Du Bois.”

Ether .... f315 Du Bois.”

Oxygen (at 1 atmosphere) ~000179

Kundt and Rontgen (loc.cit.)

Faraday's heavy glass . I-738