respires very slowly and thus loses weight during storage. The best and driest barleys are said to lose I-3 % of their weight in the first year, o~9% in the second, and o-5% in the third. The loss is considerably more with coarse and damp samples. When the grain is steeped this dormant vitality gives place to that complicated series of processes comprised under the general term germination. When germination begins, enzymes are secreted, and these act on the reserve materials, starch and proteins of the endosperm, converting them into simpler compounds, capable of d iii using to various parts of the growing germ. Following this, starch and proteins are re-formed, the former being deposited in the tissues of the germ and in the / 1 'rfi'?v r.°' Tv """i1af¢""'7 "h'57' '“.f- sz»', / If 1.19000, Io 7 'U L'0¢1.q|-It
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7.-Section showing the aleurone layer.
g, Starch cells; k, Layers which collectively conj, Aleurone layer; stitute the husk.
(Figs. 5-7 from Sykes 81 Ling, Principle; and Practice of Brewing (1907), Charles Grithn & Co., Ltd.]
cells of the scutellum, which previously were almost free from starch; the protein matter deposited in the latter disappears to a 'considerable extent, and the protoplasmic content of the cells assumes a very granular appearance. The pointed mass of cells constituting the root-sheath is pushed forward by the root which protrudes through the base of the grain. It is at this stage that the barley is said by the maltster to “ chit.” After the first rootlet has broken through the ends of the sheath, it is followed by others. The cotyledonary sheath begins to elongate on the third or fourth day of germination and ruptures the true covering of the seed; it then grows upwards between this and the husk and forms the acrospire or “ spire ” of the maltster.
According to Brown and Morris, when the first rootlet is breaking through the sheath, starch begins to appear in the tissues of the rain, also in the protoplasm of those cells which are nearest the epitiielial layer, and it gradually invades the deeper-seated cells. Further the cellulose walls of the endosperm, situated immediately above the secretory layer, are partially dissolved, the dissolved matter passing into the scutellum, there to be transformed into starch. Brown and Morris state that this process gradually extends to the cellulose walls of the endosperm, and until these are affected there is no evidence of any solvent action on the starch granules themselves. Thus according to these authors the first enzyme to be formed is one which dissolves cell walls, and it was consequently termed by them a “ cytohydrolyst." They assert further that the so-called mealy or modified condition, which the maltster desires to bring about to the fullest degree, depends on the extent to which the cell walls have been affected, and they enter into a minute description of the entire disappearance of these during the malting process. On the other hand, ]. Griiss has pointed out that the action which takes place on the cell walls of the endosperm during germination does not consist in their complete solution. Schulze has shown that these cell walls consist of two carbohydrates, an araban and a xylan. ' Griiss states that the araban is completely dissolved, whilst the xylan is more or less unattached. The cell walls become, however, transparent so that they can only be seen in sections which have been stained; Brown and Morris examined unstained sections. The writer (A. R. Ling) has proved that the cell wall is present in the most friable and, well modified finished malt.
Condition.-Barley is bought in the open market solely on the evidence of certain external signs, and judgment can only be acquired by long experience. The corns should be plump, even in size, and the colour should be uniform from end to end. The sample should have a sweet odour, and it should be dry to the touch. The presence of light or weevil led corns may be detected by the fact that they lioat in water. Careless threshing or dressing is responsible for much damage done to barley. In this way many of the corns may be broken, have the paleae partly stripped off or portions removed along with the awn. All broken and dead corns are prone to become mouldy on the malting floors, the contagion thus presented becoming general. E. R. Moritz drew attention in 1895 to the ill effects of close dressing, and more recently (1905) the matter has been brought before the Highland and Agricultural Society, chiefly through Montagu Baird, who with C. H. Babington was instrumental in inducing the Board of Agriculture to publish a leaflet recommending more careful methods of threshing barley. Close dressing was at one time practised as a means of raising the bushel weight, and thus giving a fictitious value to the barley. Immature barley feels cold to the hand, has a greenish-yellow colour, and, when dry, a starved wrinkled appearance. Over-ripeness in barley is distinguished by a white dead appearance of the corn. Mature or dry grains slip through the fingers more readily than unripe or damp ones. The contents of the endosperm should present a white friable or mealy appearance when the corns are bitten or cut in two with a penknife. The condition of the grain may be determined by means of a mechanical cutter, which cuts a certain number of corns (iifty or more) at one time. Some cutters are constructed to cut the corns transversely, others to cut them longitudinally. The so-called transparency test may be used for the same purpose. It is. carried out in an apparatus known as the diaphanoscope, which consists of a box fitted with a sliding tray, furnished with a certain number of shuttle-shaped holes (usually 500), each of such a size as just to hold a barleycorn longitudinally. Into the portion of the box below this tray an electric lamp is placed, and the corns are looked at from above. Thoroughly mealy corns are opaque, whilst steely corns are transparent. When certain portions of a corn are steely, these present the appearance of lakes. By this means the percentage of mealy, steely, or half steely corns in a sample may readily be estimated. E. Prior points out that steeliness of barley is of two kinds, one of which disappears after the grain has been steeped and dried, and therefore does not necessarily influence the malting value of the sample, and the other which is' permanent, and therefore retards the modification of the corn. He proposed to determine what he called the coefficient of mellowness of a sample of barley by means of the formula:- (M M
r 1-) Ioo
in which A is the degree of mellowness, M is the percentage of mealy corns in the original barley, and M1 is the percentage of mealy corns after steeping and drying the barley. Prior points out that, generally speaking, the degree of mellowness varies inversely as the protein content.
The physical differences between steely and mealy grains were first investigated by johansen, who arrived at the conclusion that mealiness is always accompanied by the presence of air spaces in the endosperm. Munro and Beaven confirmed and extended this. Their conclusions are as follow: “ Mealy grains have a lower specific gravity than steely grains, and contain a larger amount of interstitial air. The total nitrogen content of mealy grains is less than that of steely grains. Steely grains contain a relatively high proportion of nitrogenous substances soluble (a) in 5% salt solution, and (b) in alcohol of specific gravity o-9. Mealy barley modifies better than steely during germination. The process of drying damp and under-matured barley intact at 100° F. produced an apparent mellowing or maturation. Other things being equal, maturation, which is physiologically a ost-ripening process, is correlated with the mealy appearance of tlhe endosperm." H. T. Brown and his collaborators point out that thin sections of steely corns when examined under the microscope no longer exhibit a translucent appear# ance, but show the mealy properties as completely as if they had been cut from a mealy grain, and they suggest that in a steely corn the whole of the endosperm is under a state of tensile stress which cannot be maintained in the thin sections. If, however, a thin section of a steely barley be cemented to a slide with Canada balsam and then pared away with a razor, steeliness and translucency may be preserved even in the thinnest sections. The mealy appearance in the endosperm of barley is assumed to be a direct consequence of the formation of inter spaces around the cell-contents and within the