5602. Mamaroneck is served by the New York, New Haven 81 Hartford railway. The township includes the village of Larchmont (pop. in 1910, 1958), incorporated in 1891, and part of the village of Mamaroneck (pop. in 1910, including the part in Rye township, 5699), incorporated in 1895. Larchmont is the headquarters of the Larchmont Yacht Club. The site of Mamaroneck township was bought in 166O from the Indians by John Richbell, an Englishman, who obtained an English patent to the tract in 1668. The first settlement was made by relatives of his on the site of Mamaroneck village in 1676, and the township was erected in 1788. On the 28th of August 1776, near Mamaroneck, a force of American militiamen under Capt. John Flood attacked a body of Loyalist recruits under William Lounsbury, killing the latter and taking several prisoners. Soon afterwards Mamaroneck was occupied by the Queen's Rangers under Colonel Robert Rogers. On the night of the 21st of October an attempt of a force of Americans under Colonel John Haslet to surprise the Rangers failed, and the Americans, after a handto-hand fight, withdrew with 36 prisoners. Mamaroneck was the home of John Peter DeLancey (1753-1828), a Loyalist soldier in the War of Independence, and was the birthplace of his son William Heathcote DeLancey (1797-1865), a well-known Protestant Episcopal clergyman, provost of the University of Pennsylvania in 1827-1832 and bishop of western New York from 18 39 until his death. James Fenimore Cooper, the novelist, married (1811) a daughter of John Peter DeLancey; lived in Mamaroneck for several years, and here wrote his first novel, Precautiori, and planned The Spy.
MAMELI, GOFFREDO (1827-1849), Italian poet and patriot, was born at Genoa of a noble Sardinian family. He received a sound classical education at the Scolopi College, and later studied law and philosophy at the university of Genoa. When nineteen years old he corresponded with Mazzini, to whom he became whole-heatedly devoted; among other patriotic poems he wrote a hymn to the Bandiera brothers, and in the autumn of 1847 a song called “ Fratelli d'Italia, ” which as Carducci wrote, “ resounded through every district and on every battlefield. of the peninsula in 1848 and 184Q.” Mameli served in the National Guard at Genoa, and then joined the volunteers in the Lombard campaign of 1848, but after the collapse of the movement in Lombardy he went to Rome, where the, republic was proclaimed and whence he sent the famous despatch to Mazzini: “Romal Repubblica! Venite! ” At first he wrote political articles in the newspapers, but when the French army approached the city with hostile intentions he joined the Hghting ranks and soon won Garibaldi's esteem by his bravery. Although wounded in the engagement of the 30th of April, he at once resumed his place in the ranks, but on the 3rd of June he was again Wounded much more severely, and died in the Pellegrini hospital on the 6th of July 1849. Besides the poems mentioned above, he wrote hymns to Dante, to the Apostles, “ Dio e popolo, ” &c. The chief merit of his work lies in the spontaneity and enthusiasm for the Italian cause which rendered it famous, in spite of certain technical imperfections, and he well deserved the epithet of “The Tyrtaeus of the Italian revolution.” See A. G. Barrili, “ G. Mameli nella vita e nell' arte, ” in Nuova Antologia (June 1, 1902); the same writer's edition of the Scritti editi ed inediti di G. Mameli (Genoa, 1902); Countess Martinengo Cesaresco, Italian Characters (London, 1901); A. Luzio, Profili Biograjici (Milan, 1905); G. Trevelyan, Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic (London, 1907).
MAMELUKE (anglicized through the French, from the Arabic mamliik, a slave), the name given to a series of Egyptian sultans, originating (1250) in the usurpation of supreme power by the bodyguard of Turkish slaves first formed in Egypt under the successors of Saladin. See EGYPT: History (Moslem period).
MAMERTINI, or “ children of Mars, ” the name taken by a band of Campanian (or Samnite) freebooters who about 289 B.c. seized the Gree k colony of Messana at the north-east corner of Sicily, after having been hired by Agathocles to defend it (Polyb. 1. 7. 2). The adventure is explained by tradition (e.g. Festus 158, Muller) as, the outcome of a ver sacrum; the members of the expedition are said to have been the male children born in a particular spring of which the produce had been vowed to Apollo (cf. SAMNITES), and to have settled first in Sicily near Tauromenium. An inscription survives (R. S. Conway, Italic Dialeets, 1) which shows that they took with them the Oscan language as it was spoken in Capua or Nola at that date, and the constitution usual in Italic towns of a free community (touta=) governed by two annual magistrates (meddices). The inscription dedicated some large building (possibly a fortification) to Apollo, which so far confirms the tradition just noticed. Though in the Oscan language, the inscription is written in the Greek alphabet common to south Italy from the 4th century B.C. onwards, viz. the Tarentine Ionic, and so are the legends of two coins of much the same date as the inscription (Conway, ib. 4). From 282 onwards (B. V. Head, Historia rtumorurrt, 136) the legend itself is Graecized (MAMEPTINSZN, instead of MAAMEPTINOTM) which shows how quickly here, as everywhere, “ Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit.” On the Roman conquest of Sicily the town secured an independence under treaty (Cicero, Verr. 3. 6. 13). The inhabitants were still called Mamertines in the time of Strabo (vi. 2. 3).
See further Mommsen, C.I.L. x. sub loc., and the references already given. (R. S. C.)
MAMERTINUS, CLAUDIUS (4th century A.D.), one of the Latin panegyrists. After the death of Julian, by whom he was evidently regarded with special favour, he was praefect of Italy (365) under Valens and Valentinian, but was subsequently (368) deprived of his office for embezzlement. He was the author of an extant speech of thanks to Julian for raising him to the consulship, delivered on the 1st of January 362 at Constantinople. Two panegyrical addresses (also extant) to Maximian (emperor A.D. 286-305) are attributed to an older magisler Mamertinus, but it is probable that the corrupt MS. superscription contains the word memoriae, and that they are by an unknown magister merrioriae (an official Whose duty consisted in communicating imperial re scripts and decisions to the public). The first of these was delivered on the birthday of Rome (April 21, 289), probably at Maximian's palace at Augusta Trevirorum (T réves), the second in 290 or 291, on the birthday of the emperor. By some they are attributed to Eumenius (q.v.) who was a magisler memoriae and the author of at least one (if not more) panegyrics. The three speeches will be found in E. Bahrens, Partegyrici latini (1874); see also Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist. of Roman Literature (Eng trans.), § 417, 7.
MAMIANI DELLA ROVEHE, TERENZIO, Count (1802-1885), Italian writer and statesman, was born at Pesaro in 1799. Taking part in the outbreaks at .Bologna arising out of the accession of Pope Gregory XVI., he was elected deputy for Pesaro to the assembly, and subsequently appointed minister of the interior; but on the collapse of the revolutionary movement he Was exiled. He returned to Italy after the amnesty of 1846, and in 1848 he was entrusted with the task of forming a ministry. He remained prime minister, however, only for a few months, his political views being anything but in harmony with those of the pope. He subsequently retired to Genoa where he worked for Italian unity, was elected deputy in 1856, and in 1860 became minister of education under Cavour. In 1863 he was made minister to Greece, and in 1865 to Switzerland, and later senator and councillor of state. Meanwhile, he had founded at Genoa in 1849 the Academy of Philosophy, and in 1855 had been appointed professor of the history of philosophy at Turin; and he published several volumes, not only on philosophical and social subjects, but of poetry, among them Rinrtovamerita della jilosafia arztica italiarla (1836), Teoria della Religione e dello stalo (1869), Karit e Voritologia (1879), Religiorte dell' avenire (1880), Di uri rtuovo diritto europeo (1843, 1857). He died at Rome on the 21st of May, 1885.
See Indice delle 'opere di Terenzio Mamiani (Pesaro, 1887); Gaspare, Vita di Terenzio Mamiani (Ancona, 1887); Barzellotti, Studii e ritratti (Bologna, 1893).