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MANES—MANETHO

of 70 tons cannot come nearer than 500 yards. The pilots and sailors of Mandvi have a high reputation.


MANES, in Roman mythology, the disembodied and immortal spirits of the dead. The word is an old adjective—manis, manus, meaning “ good,” the opposite of which is immanis; hence the Manes, clearly a euphemistic term, are the “ good people.” They were looked upon as gods; hence the dedication, of great antiquity and frequent occurrence, Divis or Dis Manibus in sepulchral inscriptions, used even in Christian times. When a body was consumed on the funeral pyre, relations and friends invoked the deceased as a divinity, and the law of the Twelve Tables prescribed that the rights of the divine Manes should be respected, and that each man should regard the dead members of his family as gods. Their home was in the bowels of the earth, from which they only emerged at certain times. It was an old Italian custom-especially at the foundation of cities—to dig a pit in the form of an inverted sky (hence called mundus), the lower part of which was supposed to be sacred to the gods of the underworld, including the Manes. Such a pit existed on the Palatine at Rome. It was covered by a stone called lapis manalis, representing the entrance to the lower world, which was removed three times in the year (Aug. 24, Oct. 5, Nov. 8). The Manes were then believed to issue forth, and these days were regarded as religiosi—that is, all important business in public and private life was suspended. Offerings were made to propitiate the dead: libations of water, wine, warm milk, honey, oil, and the blood of sacrificial victims—black sheep, pigs and oxen (suovetaurilia)—was poured upon the graves; ointment and incense were offered, lamps were lighted, and the grave was adorned with garlands of flowers, especially roses and violets. Beans, eggs, lentils, salt, bread and wine, placed on the grave, formed the chief part of a meal partaken of by the mourners. There was also a public state festival in honour of the dead, called Parentalia, held from the 13th to the 21st of February, the last month of the old Roman year, the last day of the festival being called Feralia. During its continuance- all the temples were shut, marriages were forbidden, and the magistrates had to appear without the insignia of their office.

There was considerable analogy between the Manes and the received idea of “ souls ”—and there was a corresponding idea that they could be conjured up and appear as ghosts. They were also supposed to have the power of sending dreams. It is to be noticed that, unlike the Lares, the Manes are never spoken of singly.

For authorities, see Lares and Penates.


MANET, EDOUARD (1832-1883), French painter, regarded as the most important master of Impressionism (q.'v.), was born in Paris on the 23rd of January 1832. After spending some time under the tuition of the Abbé Poiloup, he entered the College Rollin, where his passion for drawing led him to neglect all his other lessons. His studies finished in 1848, he was placed on board the ship Guadeloupe, voyaging to Rio de Janeiro. On his return he first studied in Couture's studio (1851), where his independence often infuriated his master. For six years he was an intermittent visitor to the studio, constantly taking leave to travel, and going first to Cassel, Dresden, Vienna and Munich, and afterwards to Florence, Rome and Venice, where he made some stay. Some important drawings date from this period, and one picture, “A Nymph Surprised.” Then, after imitating Couture, more or less, in “The Absintheldrinker ” (1866), and Courbet in “ The Old Musician, ” he devoted himself almost exclusively to the study of the Spanish masters in the Louvre. A group was already gathering round him-Whistler, Legros, and Fantin-Latour haunted his studio in the Rue Guyot. His “ Spaniard playing the Guitar, ” in the Salon of 1861, excited much animadversion. Delacroix alone defended Manet, but, this notwithstanding, his “ Fifer of the Guard ” and “ Breakfast on the Grass ” were refused by the jury. Then the “ Exhibition of the Rejected” was opened, and round Manet a group was formed, including Bracquemond, Legros, Jongkind, Whistler, Harpignies and Fantin-Latour, the writers Zola, Duranty and »Duret, and Astruc

the sculptor. In,1863, when an amateur,

M. Martinet, lentan exhibition-room to Manet, the painter pictures; and then, in 1864, contributed

“ The Angels at the Tomb ” and “ A. Bullexhibited fourteen

again to the Salon

fight.” Of this picture he afterwards kept nothing but the toreador in the foreground, and it is now known as “ The Dead Man.” In 1865 he sent to the Salon “ Christ reviled by the Soldiers ” and the famous “ Olympia, ” which was hailed with mockery and laughter. It represents a nude woman reclining on a couch, behind which is seen the head of, a negress who carries a bunch of flowers. A black cat at her feet emphasizes the whiteness of the sheet on which the woman lies. This work (now in the Louvre) was presented to the Luxembourg by a subscription started by Claude Monet (1890). It was hung in 1897 among the Caillebotte collection, which included- the “ Balcony, ” and a study of a female head called “ Angelina.” This production, of a highly independent individuality, .secured Manet's exclusion from the Salon of 1866, so that, he determined to exhibit his pictures in a place apart during the Great Exhibition of 1867. 'In a large gallery in the Avenue de l'Alma, half of which was occupied by Courbet, he hung no fewer than fifty paintings. Only one important picture was absent, “ The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian ”; its exhibition was prohibited by the authorities. From that time, in spite of the fierce hostility of some adversaries, Manet's energy and that of his supporters began to gain the day. His “ Young-Girl ” (Salon of 1868) was jusfly appreciated, as well as the: portrait of Lola; but the “Balcony” and the “ Breakfast ” (1869) wereas severely handled as the “ Olympia” had been. In 1870 he exhibited “ The Music Lesson ” and a portrait of Mlle E. Gonzales. Not long before the Franco-Prussian War, Manet, finding himself in the country, with a friend, for the first time discovered the true value of open air to the effects of painting in his picture “ The Garden, ” which gave rise to the“' open air ” or plein air school. After fighting as a gunner, he returned to his family in the Pyrenees, where he painted “ The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama.” His “ Bon Bock” (1873) created a furore. But in 1875, as in 1869, there was as fresh outburst of abuse, this time of the “ Railroad, ” “ PolichineIle, f and “ Argenteuil, ” and the jury excluded the artist, who for the second time arranged an exhibition in his studio. In 1877 his “ Hamlet ” was admitted to the Salon, but “ Nana ” was rejected. The following works were exhibited at the Salon of 1881: “ In the Conservatory, ” “ In a Boat, ” and the portraits of Rochefort and Proust; and- the Cross of the Legion of Honour was conferred on the painter on the 31st of December in that year. Manet died in Paris on the:oth of April 1883. He left, besides his pictures, a number of pastels and engravings. He illustrated Les Chats by Champfleury, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven. '-See

Zola, Manet (Paris, 1867); E. Bazire, Manet (Paris, 1884); G. Geffroy, La Vie artistique (1893). (H. FR.)


MANETENERIS, a tribe of South American Indians of the upper Purus river, and between it and the ]urua, north-western Brazil. They manufacture cotton cloth, and have iron axes and fish hooks. The men wear long ponchos, the women sacks open at the bottom. The Maneteneris are essentially a waterside people. Their cedar wood canoes are very long and beautifully made.


MANETHO (Μανέθων in an inscription of Carthage; Μανεθὼς in a papyrus), Egyptian priest and annalist, was a native of Sebennytus in the Delta. The name which he bears has a good Egyptian appearance, and has been found on a contemporary papyrus probably referring to the man himself. The evidence of Plutarch and other indications connect him with the reigns of Ptolemy I. and II. His most important work was an Egyptian history in Greek, for which he translated the native records. It is now only known by some fragments of narrative in Josephus's treatise Against Apina, and by tables of dynasties and kings with lengths of reigns, divided into three books, in the works of Christian chronographers. The earliest and best of the latter is Julius Africanus, besides whom Eusebius and