some falsifying apologists offer the same materials; the chief text is that preserved in the Chronographia of Georgius Syncellus. It is difficult to judge the value of the original from these extracts: it is clear from the different versions of the lists that they have been corrupted. Manetho’s work was probably based on native lists like that of the Turin Papyrus of Kings: even his division into dynasties may have been derived from such. The fragments of narrative give a very confused idea of Egyptian history in the time of the Hyksos and the XVIIIth Dynasty. The royal lists, too, are crowded with errors of detail, both in the names and order of the kings, and in the lengths attributed to the reigns. The brief notes attached to some of the names may be derived from Manetho’s narrative, but they are chiefly references to kings mentioned by Herodotus or to marvels that were supposed to have occurred: they certainly possess little historical value. A puzzling annotation to the name of Bocchoris, “in whose time a lamb spake 990 years,” has been well explained by Krall’s reading of a demotic story written in the twenty-third year of Augustus. According to this a lamb prophesied that after Bocchoris’s reign Egypt should be in the hands of the oppressor 900 years; in Africanus’s day it was necessary to lengthen the period in order to keep up the spirits of the patriots after the stated term had expired. This is evidently not from the pure text of Manetho. Notwithstanding all their defects, the fragments of Manetho have provided the accepted scheme of Egyptian dynasties and have been of great service to scholars ever since the first months of Champollion’s decipherment.
See C. Müller, Fragmenta historicorum graecorum, ii. 511–616; A. Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte (Gotha, 1884), pp. 121 et sqq.; J. Krall in Festgaben für Büdinger (Innsbruck, 1898); Grenfell and Hunt, El Hibeh Papyri, i. 223; also the section on chronology in Egypt, and generally books on Egyptian history and chronology. (F. Ll. G.)
MANFRED (c. 1232–1266), king of Sicily, was a natural son of the emperor Frederick II. by Bianca Lancia, or Lanzia, who is reported on somewhat slender evidence to have been married to the emperor just before his death. Frederick himself appears to have regarded Manfred as legitimate, and by his will named him as prince of Tarentum and appointed him as the representative in Italy of his half-brother, the German king, Conrad IV. Although only about eighteen years of age Manfred acted loyally and with vigour in the execution of his trust, and when Conrad appeared in southern Italy in 1252 his authority was quickly and generally acknowledged. When in May 1254 the German king died, Manfred, after refusing to surrender Sicily to Pope Innocent IV., accepted the regency on behalf of Conradin, the infant son of Conrad. But the strength of the papal party in the Sicilian kingdom rendered the position of the regent so precarious that he decided to open negotiations with Innocent. By a treaty made in September 1254, Apulia passed under the authority of the pope, who was personally conducted by Manfred into his new possession. But Manfred’s suspicions being aroused by the demeanour of the papal retinue, he fled to the Saracens at Lucera. Aided by Saracen allies, he defeated the papal troops at Foggia on the 2nd of December 1254, and soon established his authority over Sicily and the Sicilian possessions on the mainland.
Taking advantage in 1258 of a rumour that Conradin was dead, Manfred was crowned king of Sicily at Palermo on the 10th of August in that year. The falsehood of this report was soon manifest; but the new king, supported by the popular voice, declined to abdicate, and pointed out to Conradin’s envoys the necessity for a strong native ruler. But the pope, to whom the Saracen alliance was a serious offence, declared Manfred’s coronation void and pronounced sentence of excommunication. Undeterred by this sentence Manfred sought to obtain power in central and northern Italy, and in conjunction with the Ghibellines his forces defeated the Guelphs at Monte Aperto on the 4th of September 1260. He was then recognized as protector of Tuscany by the citizens of Florence, who did homage to his representative, and he was chosen senator of the Romans by a faction in the city. Terrified by these proceedings, Pope Urban IV. implored aid from France, and persuaded Charles count of Anjou, a brother of King Louis IX., to accept the investiture of the kingdom of Sicily at his hands. Hearing of the approach of Charles, Manfred issued a manifesto to the Romans, in which he not only defended his rule over Italy but even claimed the imperial crown. The rival armies met near Benevento on the 26th of February 1266, where, although the Germans fought with undaunted courage, the cowardice of the Italians quickly brought destruction on Manfred’s army. The king himself, refusing to fly, rushed into the midst of his enemies and was killed. Over his body, which was buried on the battlefield, a huge heap of stones was placed, but afterwards with the consent of the pope the remains were unearthed, cast out of the papal territory, and interred on the banks of the Liris. Manfred was twice married. His first wife was Beatrice, daughter of Amadeus IV. count of Savoy, by whom he had a daughter, Constance, who became the wife of Peter III. king of Aragon; and his second wife, who died in prison in 1271, was Helena, daughter of Michael II. despot of Epirus. Contemporaries praise the noble and magnanimous character of Manfred, who was renowned for his physical beauty and intellectual attainments.
Manfred forms the subject of dramas by E. B. S. Raupach, O. Marbach and F. W. Roggee. Three letters written by Manfred are published by J. B. Carusius in Bibliotheca historica regni Siciliae (Palermo, 1732). See Cesare, Storia di Manfredi (Naples, 1837); Münch, König Manfred (Stuttgart, 1840); Riccio, Alcuni studii storici intorno a Manfredi e Conradino (Naples, 1850); F. W. Schirrmacher, Die letzten Hohenstaufen (Göttingen, 1871); Capesso, Historia diplomatica regni Siciliae (Naples, 1874); A. Karst, Geschichte Manfreds vom Tode Friedrichs II. bis zu seiner Krönung (Berlin, 1897); and K. Hampe, Urban IV. und Manfred (Heidelberg, 1905).
MANFREDONIA, a town and archiepiscopal see (with Viesti) of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Foggia, from which it is 221 m. N.E. by rail, situated on the coast, facing E., 13 ft. above sea-level, to the south of Monte Gargano, and giving its name to the gulf to the east of it. Pop. (1901), 11,549. It was founded by Manfred in 1263, and destroyed by the Turks in 1620; but the medieval castle of the Angevins and parts of the town walls are well preserved. In the church of S. Domenico, the chapel of the Maddalena contains old paintings of the 14th century. Two miles to the south-west is the fine cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore di Siponto, built in 1117 in the Romanesque style, with a dome and crypt. S. Leonardo, nearer Foggia, belonging to the Teutonic order, is of the same date. This marks the site of the ancient Sipontum, the harbour of Arpi, which became a Roman colony in 194 B.C., and was not deserted in favour of Manfredonia until the 13th century, having become unhealthy owing to the stagnation of the water in the lagoons.
See A. Beltramelli, Il Gargano (Bergamo, 1907). (T. As.)
MANGABEY, a name (probably of French origin) applied to the West African monkeys of the genus Cercocebus, the more typical representatives of which are characterized by their bare, flesh-coloured upper eye-lids, and the uniformly coloured hairs of the fur. (See Primates.)
MANGALIA, a town in the department of Constantza Rumania, situated on the Black Sea, and at the mouth of a small stream, the Mangalia, 10 m. N. of the Bulgarian frontier. Pop. (1900), 1459. The inhabitants, among whom are many Turks and Bulgarians, are mostly fisherfolk. Mangalia is to be identified with the Thracian Kallatis or Acervetis, a colony of Miletus which continued to be a flourishing place to the close of the Roman period. In the 14th century it had 30,000 inhabitants, and a large trade with Genoa.
MANGALORE, a seaport of British India, administrative headquarters of the South Kanara district of Madras, and terminus of the west coast line of the Madras railway. Pop. (1901), 44,108. The harbour is formed by the backwater of two small rivers. Vessels ride in 24 to 30 ft. of water, and load from and unload into lighters. The chief exports are coffee, coco-nut products, timber, rice and spices. Mangalore clears and exports all the coffee of Coorg, and trades directly with Arabia and the