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584
MANITOBA

per second, and has an average depth of 12 ft. Its shores are low, and for the most part swampy. The Waterhen river, which carries the discharge of Lake Winnipegosis, is the only considerable stream entering the lake. It is drained by the Little Saskatchewan river into Lake Winnipeg. It was discovered by De la Verendrye in 1739.


MANITOBA, one of the western provinces of the Dominion of Canada, situated midway between the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of the Dominion, about 1090 m. due west of Quebec. It is bounded S. by the parallel 49° N., which divides it from the United States; W. by 101° 20' W.; N. by 52° 50' N.; and E. by the western boundary of Ontario. Manitoba formerly belonged to the Hudson's Bay Company, and after the transfer of its territory to Canada was admitted in 1870 as the fifth province of the Dominion. At that time the infant province had an area of 13,500 sq. m., and some 12,000 people, chiefly Indian half-breeds. In 1881 the limits were increased as above, and the province now contains upwards of 73,956 sq. m., extending 264 m. from north to south and upwards of 300 from east to west. The old district of Assiniboia, the result of the efforts in colonization by the earl of Selkirk in 1811 and succeeding years, was the nucleus of the province. The name Manitoba sprang from the union of two Indian words, M anilo (the Great Spirit), and Waba (the “narrows ” of the lake, which may readily be seen on the map). This well known strait was a sacred place to the Crees and Saulteaux, who, impressed by the weird sound made by the wind as it rushed through the narrows, as simple children of the prairies called them Manito-Waba, or the “ Great Spirit's narrows.” The name, arising from this unusual sound, has been by metonymy translated into “ God's Voice.” The word was afterwards contracted into its present form. As there is no accent in Indian words, the natural pronunciation of this name would be Man-i-to-ba. On this account, the custom of both the French and English people of the country was for years 'before and for several years after 1870 to pronounce it Man-i-t6-ba, and even in some cases to spell it “ Manitobah.” After the formation of the province and the familiar use of the provincial name in the Dominion parliament, where it has occupied much attention for a generation, the pronunciation has changed, so that the province is universally known from ocean to ocean as Man-i-t6-ba. .

Physical Features.-The drainage of Manitoba is entirely northeastward to Hudson Bay. The three lakes-whose greatest lengths are 260, 122 and 1 19 m. respectively-are Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba. They are all of irregular shape, but average respectively 30, 18 and IO m. in width. They are fresh, shallow and tidelcss. /innipegosis and Manitoba at high water, in spring-time, discharge their overflow through small streams into Winnipeg. The chief rivers emptying into Lake Winnipeg are the Winnipeg, the Red and the Saskatchewan. The Assiniboine river enters the Red river 45 m. from Lake Vinnipeg, and at the confluence of the rivers (“~ The Forks ”) is situated the city of Winnipeg. The Winnipeg, which flows from the territory lying south-east of Lake Winnipeg, is a noble river some 200 m. long, which after leaving Lake of the Woods dashes with its clear water over many cascades, and traverses very beautiful scenery. At its falls from Lake of the Woods is one of the greatest and most easily utilized water-powers in the world, and from falls lower down the river electric power for the city of Winnipeg is obtained. The Red river is at intervals subject to freshets. In a century's experience of the Selkirk colonists there have been four “ floods." The highest level of the site of the city of Winnipeg is said to have been under 5 ft. of water for several weeks in May and Ilune in 1826, and 2% ft. in 1852, not covered in 1861; only the lowest evels were under water in 1882. The extent of overflow has thus on each occasion been less. The loose soil on the banks of the river is every year carried away in great masses, and the channel has so widened as to render the recurrence of an overflow unlikely: The Saskatchewan, though not in the province, empties into Lake Winnipeg less than half a degree from the northern boundary, lt is a mighty river, rising in the Rocky Mountains, and crossing eighteen degrees of longitude. Near its mouth are the Grand Rapids. Above these steamers ply to Fort Edmonton, a point upwards of 800 m. north-west of the city of Winnipeg. Steamers run from Grand Rapids, through Lake Winnipeg, up Red river to the city of Vflinnipeg, important locks having been constructed on the river at St Andrews.

The surface 0f Manitoba is somewhat level and monotonous. It is chiefly a prairie region, with treeless plains of from 5 to 40 m. extent, covered in summer with an exuberant vegetable growth, which dies every year. The river banks, however, are fringed with trees, and in the more undulating lands the timber belts vary from a few hundreds of yards to 5 or 10 m. in width, forming 'at times forests of no inconsiderable size. The chief trees of the country are the aspen -(Populus tremuloides), the ash-leaved maple (Negundo aceroides), oak (Quercus alba), elm (Ulmus Americana), and many varieties of willow. The strawberry, raspberry, currant, plum, cherry and grape are indigenous.

Climate.-The climate of Manitoba, being that of a region of wide extent and of similar conditions, is not subject to frequent variations.

Winter, with cold but clear and bracing weather, usually sets in about the middle of November, and ends with March. In April and May the rivers have opened, the snow has disappeared, and the opportunity has been afforded the farmer of sowing his grain. June is often wet, but most favourable for the springing crops; July and August are warm, but, excepting two or three days at a time, not uncomfortably so; while the autumn weeks of late August and September are very pleasant. Harvest generally extends from the middlerof August to near the end of September. The chief crops of the farmer are wheat (which from its flinty hardness and full kernel is the specialty of the Canadian north-west), oats, barley and pease. Hay is made of the native prairie grasses, which grow luxuriantly. From the richness and mellowness of the soil potatoes and all taproots reach a great size. Heavy dews in summer give the needed moisture after the rains of June have ceased. The traveller and farmer are at times annoyed by the mosquito.

Area and Population.-The area is 73,956 sq. m., of which 64,066 are land and 9890 water. Pop. (1871), I8, QQ5; (1881), 62,260; (1891), 152,506; (1901), 254,947 (138,332 males, 116,615 females); (1906), 365,688 (205,183 males and 160,505 females). The principal cities and towns are: Winnipeg (90,153), Brandon (10,408), Portage la Prairie (5106), St Boniface (5119), West Selkirk (2701), and Morden (1437). In 1901, 49,102 families inhabited 48,415 houses, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural was 27-5 to 72-5. Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,3Q2; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 2291; Iceland, 5403; Austria, II, S7O; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028. In 1901 the Indians numbered 5827; half-breeds, IO,372. Of the Indian half-breeds, one half are of English-speaking parentage, and chiefly of Orkney origin; the remainder are known as Metis or Bois-brulés, and are descended from French-Canadian voyageurs. In 1875 a number of Russian Mennonites (descendants of the Anabaptists of the Reformation) came to the